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Interstellar Superhighway Boosts Light Speed Limit
The density of the aether or the medium in which light propagates is said to be greater near large masses, and reduced in deep space. This may allow for a boost in the speed of light between stars, and a cosmic super highway that allows for fast interstellar transportation. Now we just need free energy technology to power our spaceships!
by Hank Mills
Pure Energy Systems News
According to Einstein's theories of relativity, the speed of light is always constant in all frames of reference. This means that unless a method can be produced to travel faster than light (warp drives, wormholes, etc) interstellar travel will always be a tedious and slow process. However, what if the universe was setup so that the regions between solar systems had a higher light speed limit? What if the speed of light is only slow in areas near massive bodies -- such as planets and stars -- where it would be dangerous to travel the speed of light? This might just be the case according to aether theory!
The aether is considered to be the medium in which light propagates. It is claimed to exist throughout the universe and is the "stuff" that space is made out of. Although the theories about the aether differ, many of them seem to agree that it is responsible for gravity, inertia, electromagnetism, and many other phenomena. Nikola Tesla manipulated the aether with his Tesla Coils, and was able to extract overunity power from this unlimited source of energy. He was also able to send longitudinal waves (impulses in the aether) through Faraday cages, and was able to transmit power over long distances without wires. These signals seemed to travel at speeds greater than the speed of light.
In attempts to detect the aether, a number of experiments have been performed. Some of these experiments attempted to detect the aether by trying to measure the difference of the speed of light as it travels in different directions. Since early aether theories indicated the aether flowed in one direction as it passed through the Earth, they tried to measure the difference in the speed of light when it traveled "with" the flow of aether, compared to against the flow of aether. If a difference was found, it would be strong evidence in support of the existence of the aether.
The most famous of these tests to detect the aether, the Michelson Morley experiment performed in 1887, did not find a significant difference in the speed of light. A small difference was found, but it was within the margin of error. Additional tests were performed, and most concluded the effect of the aether on the speed of light was small (within the margin of error) or non-existent. This led many scientists to dismiss the idea of the aether all together.
However, there is a solution that could allow for the aether to exist, despite the test results that show the speed of light does not change significantly. It is called a fully or partially "entrained" aether. According to this theory, aether seems to cling to the Earth and other massive objects. Because the aether is moving along with the Earth, the speed of light moving in two opposite directions in the gravitational field of the planet would be nearly the same -- with only a small difference if any.
Since the aether fills the universe, light has to travel through it. According to the entrained aether theory, the speed of light would slow down near a massive object. It would do so because the aether would be denser around such a massive object.
Tests have been performed that seem to show the speed of light could be reduced around massive objects. The work of Irwin Shapiro proved that the speed of light varies near large masses. He bounced radar beams off the planets Mars and Venus, and calculated the time for the electromagnetic waves to make the trip there and back. The result was that their speed of was slightly slower closer to the sun, and slightly faster further away from the sun. The effect is called the Shapiro delay. Officially, the effect is stated by mainstream scientists to be caused by time dilation. However, it is also a great fit for a partially entrained aether that is denser near large masses.
A physicist by the name of Petr Beckmann, who was a Professor Emeritus of electrical engineering at the University of Colorado, wrote a book called
Einstein Plus Two which refutes the theories of Einstein. Instead, the book provides a theory that claims light slows down in the presence of a gravitational field. Instead of having to be constant to all observers, it only has to be constant in the preferred reference frame of a gravitational field. In addition, by showing the speed of light does not have to be the same to all observers, many of the absurd predictions of relativity such as time dilation, mass increase, and length contraction no longer have to take place.
An article titled, Questioning Einstein: Is Relativity
Necessary?, written by author Tom Bethel explains the basics of Petr Beckmann's theory. Here is an excerpt.
Beckmann proposed a different (but quite simple) way of looking at the ether. He argued that the local gravitational field simply is the light medium. On the Earth’s surface, we are overwhelmingly in the Earth’s field. The Moon is too (otherwise it wouldn’t orbit the Earth). If we move closer to the Sun, the Sun’s field will become dominant. And so on.
In other words, the light medium is not uniform. It becomes more attenuated in outer space, and denser in proximity to gravitating bodies. Given this, some predictions of general relativity can immediately be deduced from classical physics. Wave fronts are refracted as they travel through a non-uniform medium. The bending of starlight passing close by the Sun follows directly from Fermat’s Principle. It also follows from the multidimensional tensors and non-Euclidean geodesics of general relativity. But Fermat’s Principle is far simpler.
Michelson’s expected fringe shift depended on the relative velocity between the ether and the Earth’s orbital motion. But if the ether simply is the local gravitational field, then that field obviously accompanies the orbiting Earth, as a shadow accompanies a runner. On this view, the fringe shift that Michelson expected to see would not be there.
But the Earth also rotates on its axis, and the gravitational field does not swing around with the Earth. So the Earth rotates through its own field. Prof. Howard Hayden (U. Conn emeritus) suggested the metaphor of a woman wearing a hooped skirt. When she walks, the skirt moves forward with her. But if she does a pirouette, (assuming a circular waist and no friction) she will rotate within her skirt. If this analogy holds for the Earth and its field, then Michelson’s experiment would expect to show a fringe shift but one that is very much smaller than anticipated in 1887. In fact, it would be four orders of magnitude smaller.
The Earth’s orbital velocity is about one hundred times greater than its rotational velocity in mid latitudes. And because the Michelson experiment looks for a second-order effect, that multiple has to be squared. So we are looking for an effect ten thousand times smaller than the one that Michelson expected. This is the key prediction of Beckmann’s theory. When Beckmann was writing his book, he did not expect so small an effect to be detectable. Certainly Michelson‘s 19th century equipment could not have seen 0.00004 of a fringe shift, instead of the 0.4 of a fringe that was expected.
So if the speed of light changes depending on the gravitational field, what does that mean in the real world?
It means a lot!
The Interstellar Superhighway
Another scientist who supports the idea that the speed of light does not have to remain constant to all observers (and slows down near massive objects) is the late Robert Carroll. This extremely credible and well educated scientist wrote a number of books and papers refuting relativity, and promoting the idea that the speed of light varies depending on the strength of the local gravitational field. Here is a brief biography from his
Born in Three Lakes, Washington, U.S.A., on January 15, 1910.
Died in Charleston, South Carolina on April 13, 1997
This site will continue to exist to share his work with others as a memorial to a man that left the world with more than most will ever understand.
Degrees: A.B. Education, Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia, 1933. M.S. Mathematics, 1940, and Ph.D. Mathematical Physics, 1944. West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
Appointments held: Teaching Fellow, Physics Department, West Virginia University 1942-44. Research staff member, MIT Field Experiment Station, Washington, D.C. 1944-45. Associate project leader, proximity Fuze Research, Ordinance Development Division, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 1945-46. Head, Department of Physics, Fairmont State College 1946-56. Chief Engineer and Dean of Academics, U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland 1956-58. Propulsion Unit Head, Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, New York 1958-59. Senior Scientist, American Machine & Foundry Company, Alexandria, Virginia 1959-61. Operations Analyst Naval Warfare Analysis Group, Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Pentagon, 1961-62. Systems Associate, Staff of Chief Engineer, Melpar Inc., Falls Church, Virginia 1962-64. Operations Analyst, Combat Operations Research Group, Combat Development Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 1964-65. Head, Department of Physics, Baptist College at Charleston, Charleston, S.C. 1965-77.
Publications: The Development of Differential Operators by a Method of Geometric Projection, American Journal of Physics, August, 1942. A proof of the Centrifugal Force Formula, School Science and Mathematics, April, 1944. The Aerodynamics of Powered Flight, John Wiley & Sons, 1960 (Used as a college text). The New Physics, copyright 1972. The New Testament of Physics, 1974 (Ready for publication). Patents in Guided Missile Circuitry and also in Low temperature Heat Transfer Devices.
Honors and Awards: Biographical sketches in Whos Who in American Education; American Men of Science, Two Thousand Men of Achievement, 1972, and others. Ordinance Development Award for Naval Research.
Member: Sigma Xi, Sigma Pi Sigma, Lambda Delta Lambda.
As you can see, he was not an uneducated crack-pot like many "mainstream" scientists try to accuse "outside of the box" thinkers of being.
According to his books, in deep space, far beyond massive objects like stars and planets, the speed of light could be extremely high. In fact, it could be so high that practical interstellar travel would be possible. Here is a quote from Chapter 3 of his book,
"Arcturus by Dawn."
(You can read Arcturus by Dawn and his other books here, for
If our destination stays put, at least we can hope to get to it. Even so, there are certain hazards to be considered. The velocity of light in the vicinity of earth is a very real barrier. In the terminology of "Star Trek", this would be Warp 1.
Analogy is sometimes a valid teaching method. If a plane travels at the velocity of sound in the atmosphere, it is said to be at Mach 1. At one time the experts were giving solemn assurances to the effect that no aircraft would ever exceed this velocity because the drag rise in this region of flight is so extreme that frictional forces would tear the plane apart. The Mach effect is in perfect analogy with the Einstein factor as applied to space in which the Velocity of sound is replaced with the velocity of light.
The atmosphere becomes more tenuous with elevation, posing no barrier at all at a distance of a hundred miles. The energy density of space falls off inversely as the fourth power of the radius vector. In a distance of ten radii, the energy density of the space of the earth is reduced to a value of one ten thousandth part of that applying to the surface. When we get far enough out from the presence of large mass systems there can be no limit to the velocity which can be attained. Again we state: There can exist no Velocity barrier in outer space.
According to Carroll, the only obstacle to super fast space travel (far exceeding the speed of light in the solar system) is developing proper propulsion systems.
This is where free energy technologies come into play. By tapping unlimited sources of energy (perhaps from the aether) we could have a way to power exotic new propulsion systems that could accelerate craft out of the solar system, and then to speeds far exceeding the speed of light in the gravitational field of a star (where the aether is denser).
There may be a trade off where free energy from the aether is more difficult to tap into between stars where it is less dense, but we will not know until we put it to the test. This theory fascinates me, because it seems perfectly logical. In solar systems you would not want to travel anywhere close to the speed of light, because there are too many pieces of debris you could impact. Even a tiny speck of dust could put a giant hole in your space ship. However, in interstellar space there would be very little if any debris, and it would be safer to travel at very high speeds.
Although I think there are ways to travel faster than the speed of light in a gravitational field -- perhaps with warp drive or wormhole technology -- this concept makes it even easier to accept the idea that extraterrestrials could be visiting our planet as we speak. It would make faster than light (at least what the mainstream thinks is the speed of light) travel much easier, and eliminate many or all of the ridiculous effects that relativity creates.
If it is true that the speed of light is dramatically greater in deep space, perhaps this is another reason that some of the "powers that be" have suppressed free energy technologies for so long. Without a light speed barrier, exotic energy technologies could be used to power space craft capable of exploring the galaxy. Instead of taking years to reach the closest star, it might only take months, weeks, or days. Probably, with such space craft humans would run into ETs very quickly, and realize just how backwards our civilization really is compared to many others that exist. Once learning that not every other civilization endures big government, constant warfare among members of their own species, and manipulation by a tiny sub-set of the ultra rich, humans may actually decide to make some big changes here on Earth.
The powers that be, most of them, would not like that at all!
Even better, humanity could setup colonies and outposts all across the galaxy. Right now, if you are fed up with big government, there is really no where to go to setup a new nation. However, with super fast space travel due to a variable speed of light, there would be many potential spots to start a new civilization. We know this because the Kepler Space Telescope has detected hundreds of planets around other solar systems. Many of these solar systems have multiple planets!
Current estimates indicate there could be a hundred billion planets in our galaxy. This does not even count the moons that could exist around gas giants! Many such moons could be habitable. Even in our solar system it is thought there could be a huge underground ocean beneath the surface of
Of course we do not need habitable planets to setup colonies. Anywhere there are large asteroids we could carve them out and create huge biospheres inside of them. Perhaps in our solar system such biospheres already exist, occupied by extraterrestrials. Could it be the powers that be don't want us to find them?
In my opinion, this is another reason for humanity to push for the development of free energy technologies. Not only could free energy technologies allow our civilization here on Earth to be saved, but they could allow for humanity to gain access to the interstellar superhighway!
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This story is also published at BeforeItsNews
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