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Hydroxy Becomes Hard Science - HHO Masters Thesis Approved
Ali Can Yilmaz, a graduate student at Cukurova University in Turkey, has had his Masters Thesis on the design and application of Hydroxy systems
approved, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. This is a step forward in the fight to show that improving fuel efficiency via the use of hydroxy gas is hard science.
by Hank Mills
Pure Energy Systems News
One of the internal combustion engines tested in the thesis. When boosted with hydroxy it's fuel consumption and emissions were
For many years people have been boosting their gas mileage by using hydroxy systems. By utilizing electrolysis you can break apart water into a mixture of gases called hydroxy and mix them with the fuel burned in an internal combustion engine. The result can be an increase in fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, more torque, and a smoother running engine. However, it has been a challenge to get the "mainstream" to take "hydroxy boosting" seriously. The approval of Ali Can Yilmaz's master's thesis should help boost the credibility of this topic to the next level.
To begin with, here is the abstract of the thesis.
DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS OF HYDROXY (HHO) SYSTEM
Ali Can YILMAZ
INSTITUTE OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Supervisor :Prof. Dr. Kadir AYDIN
Year: 2010, Pages: 76
Jury :Prof. Dr. Kadir AYDIN
:Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hόseyin AKILLI
:Asst. Prof. Dr. Murat AKSOY
In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) is produced by the electrolysis process of
different catalysts (KOH(aq), NaOH(aq), NaCl(aq)) with various electrode designs
in a leak proof plexiglass reactor container (hydrogen generator). Catalysts are
used to diminish oxygen and hydrogen bonds. Hydroxy gas is used as a
supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition
(diesel) and a single cylinder, two stroke spark ignition (gasoline) engine
without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on
hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, engine performance
characteristics and specific fuel consumption (SFC) are investigated.
The thesis is very detailed. To begin with it gives a summary of the energy sources currently used on this planet. It states that over 90% of the energy produced comes from fossil fuels. Next, it discusses some of the alternative energy sources being utilized. There is an extensive section on using hydrogen as fuel and discusses hydrogen sources, production, and the properties of hydroxy.
In the thesis, hydroxy is described as, "a mixture of gases including monoatomic and diatomic hydrogen and oxygen and a special form of water called Electrically Expanded Water or Santilli Magnecules." It then describes how Hydroxy Gas is related to Brown's Gas. The unique properties of Brown's Gas such as having a cool flame, but being able to cut through steel are described.
It then gives an overview of internal combustion engines in general, how they function, and compares spark ignition systems to compression ignition systems. Everything from exhaust systems, compression, fueling systems, cylinder arrangement, and types of engines are discussed. If you want to learn how an internal combustion engine works this is a good document to read!
The last part of the thesis discusses the testing he did to verify hydroxy boosting can increase engine efficiency and reduce emissions. He tests multiple hydroxy producing cells using different types of electrodes (wire, tubes, and plates) and determines plates are the most efficient. He also tests different electrolytes and decides to use NaOH in the system. Hydroxy produced by this cell is fed into two different engines. One burns diesel and the other burns gasoline.
Looking at the various "results" graphs in the thesis, it is clear that hydroxy boosting reduces fuel consumption in both engines, increases torque, and reduces emissions. In his tests, an average of 16.3% reduction in fuel consumption is produced. However, at low speeds, the injection of hydroxy needs to be reduced. Otherwise, efficiency can be reduced.
What is very important here is that we now have more hard evidence that hydroxy boosting can produce many benefits. This is not speculation or conjecture, but scientific fact.
In addition, a paper has been published in the "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy" based on the thesis. Here is the abstract.
Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and
exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines
Ali Can Yilmaz, ErincΈ Uludamar, Kadir Aydin*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, CΈ ukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey
a b s t r a c t
In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH(aq), NaOH(aq), NaCl(aq)) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much reduction of electrical resistance. HHO system addition to the engine without any modification resulted in increasing engine torque output by an average of 19.1%, reducing CO emissions by an average of 13.5%, HC emissions by an average of 5% and SFC by an average of 14%.
ͺ 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
There are several different exotic alternative energy technologies emerging. However, there is a place for hydroxy boosting. It could serve as a way to reduce oil usage while we wait for other technologies to mature. Hopefully, this thesis and paper will serve to wake up those that remain skeptical about the reality of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing emissions by using hydroxy.
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