Konstantin Balakiryan: Proton-3ND Energy Storage Technology Could Revolutionize Battery Industry
The capacity of the Proton-3ND (Proton -3 Nano Diffusion) battery is projected to be 44 times the capacity of lithium batteries. Electric vehicles with these batteries would have more power and much more mileage at no extra charge.
by Professor Konstantin Balakiryan
for Pure Energy Systems News
Apparently, knowing that we at BK Consulting are involved in the creation of a new generation of energy storage, the organizers of the U.S. Energy Storage 2015 Summit sent me a personal invitation to participate in their conference in San Francisco.
The conference was representative of the industry, with more than 90 well-known companies from around the world. Dozens of new energy storage developments were announced, from samples based on energy storage using lithium-ion polymer batteries, to an amusing, but very "practical" ice battery.
Twenty years ago, the exhibits presented at this conference could be perceived normally, but today, when we stand on the threshold of creation of quantum computers, energy storage using ice is nonsense.
The main bet in solving the problem of energy storage, today, is being placed on lithium-ion batteries. This was evident from the number of exhibits on display at the conference, and it is reflected in the number models of electric and hybrid cars running on the roads of the planet.
In 1991, the Japanese company, Sony, first announced the creation of lithium-ion batteries as a new, revolutionary breakthrough in energy storage. In comparison with the acid or alkaline batteries, it was undoubtedly a major step forward.
However, from the first days of operation of lithium-ion batteries, we have seen that they have many shortcomings. For example, if one does not strictly comply with the voltage level during charging, and mind the temperature, knowing when to turn off when overheated, and knowing to properly limit the depth of discharge as well as current consumption; then lithium-ion batteries can fail, catch fire and even explode. These batteries need protective measures, which, unfortunately, are not always fulfilled.
Therefore, BK Consulting began work on the creation of alternative electrical energy storage.
In looking for an alternative, we thought that the first solution to consider would be hydrogen, or, more precisely, energy storage using protons; given that it is our specialty.
For evidence of the merit of this approach, consider the following:
1. Proton batteries are capable of storing much more energy per unit mass and volume than lithium-ion batteries.
2. The lithium reserves on Earth are relatively small (only 0,006%), while the reserves of hydrogen in the earth's crust (lithosphere and hydrosphere) constitute 1% of its weight.
3. The process of lithium production is quite labor intensive and environmentally dirty. For example, chlorine (toxic gas) is released in the reaction in the penultimate stage of the production of metallic lithium from natural minerals.
4. Another disadvantage of lithium-ion batteries is their aging. This leads to an exponential decrease in battery capacity. In two years, 20% of their capacity is lost, on average.
5. Lithium is approximately 18 to 20 times more expensive than hydrogen, per ton.
One of the pioneer teams in the study of the possibility of proton energy storage-based fuel cells is the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT). They have developed a new concept of battery based on the energy potential of hydrogen. This chemical element, according to scientists, should serve as a replacement to lithium as a main source of energy in most modern rechargeable devices.
While fully agreeing with this concept, we went further by investing in a basis of energy storage derived from a new set of discoveries which we made at BK Consulting:
A. A rotary fuel cell that has 8 times higher performance than any known fuel cell today. (Konstantin Balakiryan Develops New Aluminum Alloy Oxidation Method).
B. A chemical solution which was first synthesized in BC Consulting. That solution not only prevents the formation of an oxide film but repels the oxygen atoms from the aluminum surface. (Konstantin Balakiryan: Rotary Fuel Cells Must be the Foundation of Hydrogen Energy)
In addition, by combining in one process two opposite chemical reactions exothermic and endothermic we managed to increase the efficiency of production of hydrogen as much as 30-35%.
It should be noted that in the (1) rotary fuel cell, electricity produces the direct conversion to hydrogen; and the usual (4) fuel cell is inverse of that: hydrogen is used to generate electricity.
This type of energy storage capacity of 50-500 megawatts can solve the energy problem of the entire USA.
However, to ensure electric energy for individual consumers and especially for cars and trucks, what is needed is a compact, high-capacity energy storage mechanism.
With this purpose in mind, BC Consulting launched a new project, which involves the creation of Nano-palladium diffusion battery (Proton-3ND) [Proton -3 Nano Diffusion]
It is known that in a unit volume of palladium can be placed up to 936 volumes of hydrogen. (At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, palladium can absorb more than 900 times its own volume of hydrogen.)
The efficiency of this storage method can be significantly increased through the use of modern nanotechnology.
The best portable energy storage must adsorb large quantities of hydrogen in a small volume and be easy to return it as needed. Furthermore, it must comply with the "hydrogen program" of the U.S. Department of Energy (1992) which sets the following criteria: hydrogen storage should contain not less than 0.065 kg of H2 in 1 kg containers and more than 63 kg in 1 m3 containers.
Among the technological problems encountered by our engineers was the problem of choosing a matrix upon which to form proton energy storage.
The solution to this extremely difficult task was found thanks to the work of Japanese professors H. Masuda, K. Fukuda, who in 1995 received the film of alumina with self-ordered porous structure using a two-stage anodic oxidation.
Thus the templates for our future of proton energy storage became an aluminum plate serving as a substrate for a thin layer of aluminum oxide presenting a rough surface with microspores.
Then, this porous surface of aluminum oxide was coated with an ultrathin micro-nano layer of palladium.
It is the combination of these micro pores, covered with palladium, that became the substrate for micro storage of hydrogen.
The closely-spaced plates' absorbent surface, with Nano-palladium cells, constitutes additional volume for the accumulation of hydrogen atoms.
Calculations show that this battery is 20 times easier. Meanwhile, the capacity of the battery is projected to be 44 times the capacity of lithium batteries. There is no doubt that electric vehicles with Nano-palladium diffusion batteries will have more power and much more mileage at no extra charge.
It is obvious that the victory in the struggle for the market between the car makers Tesla and Faraday, will favor the company that first uses "Proton-3ND" batteries.
In this regard, I would like to remind you that almost a year ago, Elon Musk stated that fuel cells for use in cars will never be commercially viable because of the inefficiency of production, transportation and storage of hydrogen gas, and its flammability.
Ironically, this statement came from a man with a remarkable ability to look far ahead into the future.
We think that once he becomes familiar with the project of Nano-palladium diffusion batteries, he will change his position and allow the Tesla cars to become even better.
BK Consulting would like to present its own vision of the future of Nano-palladium diffusion batteries.
There is no doubt that millions of people in the US understand that the use of oil, natural gas and coal as a fuel will inevitably lead to the destruction of the global environment.
Rotary fuel cells and Nano-palladium diffusion battery can save us from smog, global warming and irreversible climate change on the planet.
Any U.S. citizen can participate in the consortium to construct a plant for the production of Nano-palladium diffusion batteries in Detroit. We would like to see that city be saved and restored its former glory as the car capital of the world.
It would be great to see the major oil companies among the founders of the consortium. Owners of these companies understand better than anyone the seriousness of the looming environmental, energy, economic and geo-political issues.
For more information contact:
Professor Konstantin Balakiryan
Phone: +1 (602) 618-4222
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Edited by Sterling D. Allan
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