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As a follow up to my story about this, the following is a reprint of Lieutenant Colonel ( LTCOL) Brett Laboo of the Australian Department of Defense (DOD)'s comparative analysis of Raphial Morgado's MYT™ Engine. The only substantial modification I have made has been to add a circle around the two MYT Engine items in the figures, so they stand out. 

You can download (1 Mb) the original pdf document.

The analysis has been published in the October/November proceedings of the 2012 Land Warfare Conference


BEGINNING OF REPRINT

Land Warfare Conference 2012; Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012

The Massive-yet-Tiny Engine: A comparison of OEM claims

LTCOL BRETT LABOO
Senior Military Officer, DSTO

ABSTRACT

Firepower, mobility and protection have not been the sole considerations for modern military platforms for some time now. Auxiliary power generation for an ever increasing range of integrated systems required for the effective and adaptive conduct of network enabled warfare in a connected yet expansive battle space is an additional prime consideration. So too are the through life costs together with the logistic burden for its operation.

In order to effectively address these considerations holistically and systematically a new or greatly improved technology is required.

The scope of this work is to compare some COTS/MOTS power packs with a selected new break-through technology for internal-combustion piston engines—the Massive-yet-Tiny (MyT)engine [1] using only Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) product specification data. The engines are compared on several criteria, dry weight (kg), gross volume (m³), claimed maxpower output, both (kW) and torque (Nm), specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m³). Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. Additionally the technology of the MyT engine is described along with an outline of some research and development issues. Finally a number of applications for the MyT engine are discussed briefly.

The MyT engine clearly outperforms and outclasses all of the COTS/MOTS power packs considered. The 14” MyT engine weighing 68 kg, occupying 0.035 m³ and with a claimed output of 2238 kW has a minimum specific power of 32.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63.156 MW/m³.[2]The levels of internal-combustion piston engine efficiency, specific power and power density for the current Australian Defence Force (ADF) inventory are clearly sub-par in comparison to the MyT engine. Notwithstanding any other benefits, there is no valid or logical justification for the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) to ignore the MyT engine any longer. As a matter of priority the MyT engine needs to be investigated to ratify the claims and verify its reliability so that its output characteristics and general dimensions may be the default essential specifications for power packs across multiple platforms in either block upgrades or initial acquisitions. The Australian Defence Industry has a brilliant opportunity to pre-empt the ADF in the uptake of this technological black swan [3] to the mutual benefit of all parties.

1. Introduction

Firepower, mobility and protection have not been the sole considerations for modern military platforms for some time now. Auxiliary power generation for an ever increasing range of integrated systems required for the effective and adaptive conduct of network enabled warfare in a connected yet expansive battle space is an additional prime consideration. So too are the through life costs together with the logistic burden for its operation. A whole range of considerations are depicted graphically in a diagram referred to as Quinn’s Quilt [4], at annex A. In order to effectively address the power related considerations holistically and systematically a new or greatly improved technology is required.

1.1 Scope of Work

The scope of this work is to compare some COTS/MOTS power packs with a selected new break-through technology for internal combustion piston engines—MyT engine using only open source / publically available OEM product specification data.

The engines are compared on several criteria, dry weight (kg), gross volume (m³),claimed max power output, both (kW) and torque (Nm), specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m³). Gross power density is reported in MW/m³ so as not to potentially confuse a common metric of kW/l which uses engine capacity.

Engine capacity is not considered as it is of limited utility for a comparative analysis of turbine and piston engines. Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites.

Additionally the technology of the MyT engine is described along with an outline of some research and development issues. Finally a number of applications for the MyT engine are discussed briefly. It is expected that a reader knowledgeable in the field would identify many additional applications—and that is encouraged.

1.2 General History

The MyT engine has been known in the public domain for almost a decade now. In 2005 it was entered in the NASA Create The Future Contest in the Automotive Category. Not only did it win that category, it was judged as the best entry from all categories that year. [5]. It was publicly displayed at the both the 2005 SEMA Show [6] and the 2006 Los Angeles Auto Show. [7]The prototype of the 14” MyT engine weighs only 68 kg, occupies 0.035 m³ and has a claimed output of 2238 kW. [8] This means that it has a specific power of 32.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63.156 MW/m³. Other form-factors include a 6” diameter version. [9]

2. Description

Unlike other internal combustion piston engines, the MyT engine pistons do not reciprocate. Moreover they move around the toroidal “bore” in a staccato motion, mechanically controlled by a gear and crank assembly. There are eight double headed pistons separately linked into two sets of four permanently fixed and equally spaced interleaved rotors. [10, 11]

2.1 Pistons and Gears

A general approximation of the MyT piston could be conceptualised as the joining of two regular pistons back to back which have been cut through in the vicinity of the oil ring. Thus there are no piston skirts and therefore friction losses are minimised. So too are the inertial losses because of the continuous unidirectional motion. The two interleaved rotors are driven by a very remarkable and inventive sun and planetary gear arrangement. In the basic configuration, one set of gears drives one set of eight pistons i.e. the two rotors. However, the next logical step in the development of the MyT engine is to have the gears drive two sets of eight pistons, i.e. two toroidal bores, one at each end of the crank shaft, astride the centrally mounted gears. [12, 13]

2.2 Internal Motion

As the planetary gears rotate around the sun gear the offset linkage point traces out a cycloid. The planetary gears are permanently linked to be exactly out of phase with each other. Thus when one rotor is moving the other is stationary and visa versa. This is the origin of the staccato motion. The MyT engine uses ports for both intake and exhaust and as in normal internal combustion piston engines the ports are “opened” and “closed” as the pistons transit past them. In the default configuration the MyT engine is naturally aspirated, yet a logical and rational development path would include various forms of forced induction. The lack of a valve train reduces the parasitic losses incurred by other four stroke internal combustion engines. There are two sets of each type of port and for every two rotations of the crank there are 32 power “strokes”. In a V8 engine there are just eight in the same 720°. [14, 15] The relative motion of the two rotors and gear mechanism is depicted in a spread sheet animation of a stylised model published by the OEM. [16]

2.3 Other Characteristics

There are several other novel features of the MyT engine that are of note. Given the external diameter of the toroidal bore is about 13”, that makes the stroke length roughly 8” which is remarkably long –albeit in an arc. Due to the utilisation of the sun and planetary gearing the dwell time at the equivalent of top dead centre is in the order of 12° of crank rotation. This exceptionally long period not only permits but virtually assures almost complete combustion and maximises the transfer of heat into kinetic energy. Hence the only cooling required is that resulting from the incoming charge and conventional fins on the exterior of the engine. Furthermore, the compression ration is variable—it ranges from 25:1 up to about 60:1, thus permitting the use of an unusually diverse range of fuels. And, regardless of fuel type consumed it is expected that it would be very efficient. [17, 18, 19]

2.4 Driven versus Driving

Not only can the MyT engine operate as an internal combustion engine, but due to its inherent design it can operate very well as a driven device. Although these modalities have not yet been fully explored, initial investigations indicate that the MyT engine shows as much promise in them as it does when operating as an internal combustion engine. The driven modes are somewhat similar. First, when used as a compressor or pump it will deliver both high fluid volumes at high pressure from the one stage. Secondly, it can operate as an air driven motor delivering high torque at low rpm from minimal inputs. [20, 21, 22]

2.5 Development Issues

Taken at face value, the claims of the MyT engine seem extraordinary. Thus as part of any rational development programme they and other issues must be successfully addressed in order fully realise and capitalise on this technological advance.

Such high power outputs [23] necessarily imply that there would be extreme internal stresses, and pressures. Logically this leads to questions about high strength materials, reliability and maintainability (RAM) and fuel consumption etc.

There are many areas to investigate to further develop the MyT engine. As at quarter two of 2012 it is estimated that the MyT engine is at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) [24] of around 4 – 5 [25]. For it to be considered viable option for use in the platforms operated by ADO it would need to be brought TRL 8 – 9. In doing that, some topics to consider in the development process could include the utilisation of the CSIRO TiRO additive manufacturing process for Titanium machine parts which would deliver a wide range of benefits. [26] What are other suitable production methods – casting, injection moulding, or billet machining.

Independent RAM analysis and profiling is essential–especially if the MyT engine was to be certified for use in aeronautical applications. How can multiple toroidal bores and “daisy chaining” be configured for even more power. Both miniaturisation and up-scaling are required for extending the range of applications. Investigation of acoustic, thermal and chemical signatures of the MyT engine would also assist in it’suptake in the market place—especially if it conferred significant benefits with respect to emission control legislation. This field of investigation may naturally extend into exploring and optimising ignition systems and port aerodynamics for various fuel types and induction modes. What sort of output (and engine life) is possible if the 14” MyT engine was build with two toroidal bores fitted with a supercharger and fuelled with nitro-methane?

Obviously, much work must be completed before the MyT engine can be assessed as TRL 8 – 9. It is expected that there is significant potential opportunity for members of the Australian Defence Industry to participate in the development of the MyT engine to the benefit of both themselves and the ADO.

2.6 Description Summary

The MyT engine is a highly compact device with a considerably large output and a minimum of moving parts. This is achieved through the maximisation of dwell time, stroke length and compression ratio combined with the minimisation of both parasitic and friction losses along with reducing inertial stresses. Figure 1, below, is a stylised graphical representation of the MyT engine with the engine body removed.

Figure 1: Graphic of MyT internals

3. Initial Comparisons

To establish the class or classes in which the MyT engine can be grouped for comparative analysis, both the 14” version and the 6” version are compared with 60other military or defence related engines –listed in table 1, below. These comparisons are solely based on publicly available data, primarily from OEM product literature. Although end notes for the tables and graphs are omitted due the large number of them, all source documents and/or websites are listed in the References section. The six comparisons used to establish a more specific class comparison for the MyT engine are, dry weight (kg), gross volume (m³), claimed max power output, both (kW)and torque (Nm), specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m³). Gross power density is reported in MW/m³ so as not to potentially confuse a common metric of kW/l which uses engine capacity rather than gross external dimensions as used in this comparative analysis. Engine capacity is not considered as it is of limited utility for a comparative analysis of turbine and piston engines. Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. Figures 2 – 7 show the graphs of each criterion for the six initial comparisons.

Rather than use logarithmic plots, which are not always easily understood, some of the data points are truncated for several entries so as to not skew the image and render the remainder of the graph of no use to the reader.

These truncations are noted at each instance, as are omitted data points due to the lack of some data in some of the OEM product specification literature or websites.

Table 1: The list of the 60 engines compared with the MyT Engine

Figure 2: A plot of dry weight

Note: The Fairbanks Morse FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) weights almost 12 tonne.

Figure 3: A plot of gross volume

Notes:
1. The Fairbanks Morse FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) occupies in excess of 61 m³.
2. No data was publicly available for the Cummins, Ford or Mercedes Benz engines.
3. The gross engine dimensions for the Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl were inferred from the OEM website and the patents listed thereon.

Figure 4: A plot of maximum power

Figure 5: A plot of maximum torque

Note: No torque figures were listed for the engines to the right of the MAN V12-1800.

Figure 6: A plot of specific power

Figure 7: A plot of power density

Note: Power density can not be calculated for those engines with no volumes listed, i.e. the Cummins, Ford or Mercedes Benz engines.

3.1 Identification of “Classes”

From the figures above it is clearly evident that the MyT can be classified by a variety of means. Regardless of classification, it is plainly obvious that the MyT engine is grouped with the best of those in each of the comparison sets. However, the detailed class comparisons are progressed using just specific power and power density as the two primary metrics.

It is acknowledged that additional classes can be considered. The two selected metrics for establishing each class are the only two compound metrics. More information is conveyed through the use of the compound metrics.

The singular metrics are considered briefly after the detailed comparisons arising from the compound metrics.

4. Detailed Comparisons

The detailed comparisons examine the top 10 engines in both specific power and power density. The weight, gross volume, power and torque are compared for each of the top 10 engines for both classes.

4.1 Specific Power Class

The top 10 engines in terms of specific power as per figure 6, are listed in table 2, below.

Table 2: Specific Power: Top 10 Engines

Interestingly, all of these engines, except for the MyT engines are for aircraft of some description and most are not piston engines. It is not until about a third of the way through the entire list in figure 6, above, that the first dedicated land platform application is rated, i.e. the MTR 10V 890 for the Puma. Thus the 14” MyT engine appears to outclass all engines in specific power, even the Honeywell engines for the M1 tank and the CH47 helicopter. The detailed comparisons of these 10 engines across the four criteria are depicted in figures 8 – 11 below.

Figure 8: Specific Power Top 10 – Weight

Figure 9: Specific Power Top 10 – Volume

Figure 10: Specific Power Top 10 – Power

Figure 11: Specific Power Top 10 – Torque

From the four graphs above, a visual inspection reveals that the MyT engine is small, light, and powerful and has an enormous amount of torque. It weighs about the least and occupies about the least space in the engine bay yet is only out powered by the Honeywell 55 GA-714A used in large helicopters. Although, only one of the aircraft engines had any torque figures listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites, the claim of ~5000Nm for the MyT engines rather substantial. Thus the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for future aircraft both occupied and remotely piloted as well as the full range of land borne platforms and possibly even a selection of marine vessels.

4.2 Power Density Class

The top 10 engines in terms of power density are listed in table 3 below.

Table 3: Power Density: Top 10 Engines 

Again, all of these engines, except for the MyT engines and the MTU 10V 890 are for aircraft. Also the MyT engines appear to outclass all engines in power density, even the Honeywell engines for the M1 tank and the CH47 helicopter.

The detailed comparisons of these 10 engines across the four criteria are depicted in figures 12 – 15 below.

 

Figure 12: Power Density Top 10 – Weight

Figure 13: Power Density Top 10 – Volume

Figure 14: Power Density Top 10 – Power

Figure 15: Power Density Top 10 – Torque

From the four graphs above a visual inspection reveals that the MTU 10V 890 is the largest and heaviest of the top ten. And although is it considered a modern engine it still lags the 14” MyT engine by a significant margin; which as almost twice the torque and twice the power for about a 10th of the weight and about a 20th of the gross volume. Again, it appears that the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for future aircraft both occupied and remotely piloted as well as the full range of land borne platforms and possibly even a selection of marine vessels.

4.3 Other Classes

Considering two other classes in which the MyT engine can be categorised, namely size and weight, it is clearly evident from the data in figures 2 – 7 that the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for other military platforms. These include but are not limited to future plant and equipment such as generators, pumps and air-conditioner units.

5. Potential Benefits

Should the ADF take up the MyT engine once it matures to a suitable TRL, then there are a number of benefits which may accrue and be realised.

It would simultaneously enable the competing demands of protection and mobility of modern combat vehicles to be met without detriment to either factor. The weight and space savings could enable additional stores for extended range, greater firepower or any situationally or tactically optimised combination. Possibly even the carriage of additional troops and/or equipment.

Furthermore, the better fuel economy [27],improved RAM, and fleet commonality would contribute directly to a reduction of the logistic support footprint and the demands on the supply chain. This then translates into a reduction in the overall risk profile of an operation as there is less demand for logistic support personnel to be either in or transiting through the contested combat areas.

The MyT engine provides a means for the ADF to move towards a single engine type for all of its land vehicles, plant and equipment. Aircraft OEMs have the opportunity to offer platforms in current form factors with greatly enhanced characteristics such as transit range and speed, time on station, pursuit speed or payload. Even if it was just confined to the manned vehicle fleets the expected payoffs would be substantial.

6. Potential Applications

The range of potential applications for the MyT engine is extensive. From a cursory analysis it could be used in maritime vessels up to and including Armadale class patrol boats; air-cushion vehicles – both for the propulsion and for the generation and maintenance of the air-cushion, helicopters; all types of ground vehicles; jet packs-both manned and unmanned, and other aircraft for example self-powered remotely-piloted air cargo pallets; plant and equipment such as generators, pumps, air-conditioner units and ground servicing equipment and emergency control and support equipment.

In terms of using the MyT engine in ground vehicles, the characteristics of it open up many new possibilities. Examples are powered bogies for both road trains and railway cars. Fundamental redesign of power trains is possible because of the small sized of the MyT engine. This could lead to faster, lighter, and more powerful yet still air transportable ground mobility vehicles with greater payloads, endurance and/or protection.

A miniaturised form factor opens up many possibilities. It could be considered a better replacement for dental drills and other air tools. Micro / nano / pico UAVs could be powered with user refillable compressed air containers thus greatly reducing their entire emissive signatures. Powered hand tools would also benefit from the use of the MyT engine in various small form factors.

It is expected that the efforts required to develop large scale variants of the MyT engine would also be worth the cost. This would then give scope for it to be used in large ocean going vessels. Also it could be used for large electrical generation plants in remote localities which do not have access to a suitable electricity grid. This could be in either the driving or driven modes of operation, with hydrothermal energy being the power source in the second case.

Where-ever there in an internal combustion engine, pump, compressor or air powered motor currently in use there is scope for a more powerful, smaller, lighter and more efficient option to be employed using the MyT engine design. Even current hybrid systems would stand to benefit of such advances as may be realised by the MyT engine. Much more work remains to be done, to ratify the initial claims, then bring this new engine design to maturity and finally to market it—legally. [28]

7. Conclusion

The MyT clearly outperforms and outclasses all of the COTS/MOTS power packs considered. The 14” MyT engine weighing 68 kg, occupying 0.035 m³ and with a claimed output of 2238 kW has a minimum specific power of 32.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63.156 MW/m³.[29] The levels specific power and power density for internal-combustion piston engines within the current ADF inventory are clearly sub-par in comparison to the MyT engine. Notwithstanding any other benefits, there is no valid or logical justification for the ADO to ignore the MyT engine any longer. As a matter of priority the MyT engine needs to be investigated and the claims ratified so that its output characteristics and general dimensions may be the default essential specifications for power packs across multiple platforms in either block upgrades or initial acquisitions.

The Australian Defence Industry has a brilliant opportunity to pre-empt the ADF in the uptake of this technological breakthrough to the mutual benefit.

8. Annex A

A. Quinn’s Quilt [30]

9. References

Bender, A., L400 S&T Support, DSTO

Internal Presentation, 30 Jul 2012

http://americas.cosworth.com/defense/lightweight-heavy-fuel-engines/ 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napier_Lion  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napier_Sabre  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbomeca_Arrius 

http://martinjetpack.com/technicalinformation/v4-engine.aspx 

http://pesn.com/2010/04/08/9501634_MYT_Engine_6-inch_version_could_go_into_production_soon/ 

http://pesn.com/2011/04/23/9501814_Russian_firm_claims_MYT_engine_design_its_own/ 

http://pesn.com/2011/05/20/9501830_MYT-6_Engine_Signed_for_Strategic_Commercialization/ 

http://www.4btswaps.com/forum/showthread.php?7348-Isuzu-4BD1T-Introduction 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-02-13%20LA%20Auto_photo.html 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-02-13%20Sema%20Show_photo.html 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/AirMotoringResearch.html 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/news_nasa.html 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/news2.html 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 

http://www.angellabsllc.com/video/animation.xls 

http://www.csiro.au/science/TiRO 

http://www.deltahawkengines.com/econom00.shtml, et al

http://www.deltahawkengines.com/object00.shtml 

http://www.fairbanksmorse.com/engines/engine_fm_alco_251.php 

http://www.geaviation.com/engines/military/t700/t700-701d.html 

http://www.internationalpowerstroke.com/67psd.html 

http://www.mtuonline.com/mtu/products/engineprogram/diesel-engines-
for-wheeled-andtracked-armored-vehicles/engines-for-lightand-medium-
weightvehicles/detail/product/975/cHash/fd3c89d1beb26a6e0724d108
e2296c63/?L=pmhwhvenqzrqht
 

http://www.perkins.com/cda/files/2484142/7/1206E-E70TTA+IOPU+PN1962.pdf 

http://www.perkins.com/cda/files/285876/7/1103A-33G+ElectropaK+PN1780.pdf 

http://www.perkins.com/cda/files/285897/7/1103C-33+Engine+PN1700.pdf 

http://www.rollsroyce.com/Images/MTR390_tcm92-6709.pdf 

http://www.rtbot.net/Mercedes-Benz_OM612_engine 

http://www.steyrmotors.com/automotive/engines/dieselengine-6-cylinder-3200-cm3-m16/ 

http://www.whnet.com/4x4/pix/OM642.pdf 

https://acc.dau.mil/adl/en-US/25811/file/3206/TRL%20Calc%202_2.zip 

https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.aspx?id=25811 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Power_Stroke_engine 

OEM Product Brochure - No.3, Seatek – Marine (medium boat) applications, diesel

OEM Product Brochure – CAT 6757877, 2006

OEM Product Brochure – CAT C18 Military Diesel Engine, 2011

OEM Product Brochure – CAT C4.4 Military Diesel Engine

OEM Product Brochure – CAT C6.6 Military Diesel Engine

OEM Product Brochure – CAT C9 Military Diesel Engine, 2011

OEM Product Brochure – CAT Industrial Engine Ratings Guide, page 19, LECH3874-11 (2-11)

OEM Product Brochure – CAT LEHT9326 (8-99)

OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4087195, Aug 2011

OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4951351, UK, 7/10

OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4951351, UK, 7/10

OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4951352, UK, 7/10

OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4971323, July 2010

OEM Product Brochure – Detroit 3SA402v 0010, 2000

OEM Product Brochure – HATZ Deisel L Series, 5/569 ENG - 02.08 - 1

OEM Product Brochure – Honeywell: PA00-2613, May 2000

OEM Product Brochure – Honeywell: PA02-2993B, April 2002

OEM Product Brochure – Jabiru, 3300 Aero Engine

OEM Product Brochure – LEDT7014-01, 2007

OEM Product Brochure – Mack: A Sales Engineering Publication, ENG139 1001519_9B 04/04/2008

OEM Product Brochure – MAN D 114.482/E - mu 11092

OEM Product Brochure – MAN D 114.483/E - mu 11092

OEM Product Brochure – MAN, D114567/E

OEM Product Brochure – Marine Diesel: Marine (medium boat) applications, diesel

OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3230991, 2/10, VMD 2010-09

OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3231111, 2/10, VMD 2010-09

OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3231131, 2/10, VMD 2010-09

OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3232171, 2/10, VMD 2010-09

OEM Product Brochure - MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH brochure, www.mtu-online.com 

OEM Product Brochure – MTU Marine Diesel Engines 12V/16V 2000 M70 for Vessels with High Load Factors (1B)

OEM Product Brochure – Schrick: diesel/Kerosene for UAVs

OEM Product Brochure – Schrick: lightweight gasoline engine for UAVs

OEM Product Brochure – Steyr Motors: 25kW Diesel Electric Generator, August 2011

OEM Product Brochure – Steyr Motors: MONOBLOCK DIESEL, [Marine engine series - SE 6 cylinder]

OEM Product Brochure – Steyr Motors: STEYR MONOBLOCK DIESEL - FOR HEAVY DUTY DEMANDS

OEM Product Brochure – UAV Engines Ltd: AR741 - 38 bhp

OEM Product Brochure – UAV Engines Ltd: AR801 - 51 bhp

OEM Product Brochure – VCOMB 0636 May 2009

OEM Product Brochure – VOLVO PENTA, 47701285

OEM Product Brochure – Yanmar Service Manual, Industrial Diesel Engine, Model: L—A Series

Taleb N. N., The Black Swan: Second Edition: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Random House, USA, 2010

US Patent 7438044 B2

US Patent: 6,739,307 B2

http://www.marinediesel.se 

http://www.schrick.com 

http://www.seatek-spa.com 

10. Annex A

Figure A-1: Quinn’s Quilt [30]

11. Endnotes

1 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 

2 http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 

3 Taleb, 2010

4 Bender, 2012

5 http://www.angellabsllc.com/news_nasa.html 

6 http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-02-13%20Sema%20Show_photo.html 

7 http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-02-13%20LA%20Auto_photo.html 

8 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 

9 http://pesn.com/2010/04/08/9501634_MYT_Engine_6-inch_version_could_go_into_production_soon/ 

10 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2

11 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 

12 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2

13 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 

14 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2

15 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 

16 http://www.angellabsllc.com/video/animation.xls 

17 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2

18 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 

19 http://www.angellabsllc.com/news2.html 

20 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2

21 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 

22 http://www.angellabsllc.com/AirMotoringResearch.html 

23 http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 

24 https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.aspx?id=25811 

25 https://acc.dau.mil/adl/en-US/25811/file/3206/TRL%20Calc%202_2.zip 

26 http://www.csiro.au/science/TiRO 

27 http://www.angellabsllc.com/news2.html 

28 http://pesn.com/2011/04/23/9501814_Russian_firm_claims_MYT_engine_design_its_own/ 

29 http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 

30 Bender ibid

31 Bender ibid

/END OF REPRINT

# # #


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See also

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Page composed by Sterling D. Allan  
Last updated November 22, 2012

 
 

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