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Hope Grows as Journals Weigh in on Italian Cold Fusion Breakthrough
New Energy Times and LENR-CANR.org weigh in with optimistic
statements about Andrea Rossi's revolutionary claim of a hydrogen-nickel fusion
device capable of producing 10 kilowatts of heat.
D. Allan, with Buddy of Georgia, USA
Pure Energy Systems News
Scientists prepare to demonstrate Rossi's 10 kW
heat generating device during the Italian press conference Jan. 14, 2011.
Photo by Daniele Passerini, the who reported the day's proceedings in
When cold fusion was first presented in 1989, a flurry of international
enthusiasm gushed over the possibility of cheap, clean, reliable power.
But then, cold fusion was quickly dismissed as junk science because the effect
was so difficult to reproduce consistently, because not enough was known about
it yet. Unfortunately, that stigma has stuck, reinforced by ugly politics
of science, which ignore principles of science.
Meanwhile, a small subset of researchers from all over the world, mainly in
academic institutions, have continued to pursue the science, despite the
ridicule they get from colleagues. This has been heroic, considering how
important a credible reputation is within academia, and the hit these people
take to their perceived credibility when they persist in giving cold fusion a
So while mainstream science spurns cold fusion vehemently, a maverick minority
has been pursuing it with just as much passion; holding international
conferences, publishing papers in their margin journals, and comparing notes.
And they don't like calling it "cold fusion," both because of the
stigma attached to that phrase, as well as the inaccuracy of the name from a
strict interpretation point of view. It's most often called a "Low
Energy Nuclear Reaction" or LENR.
The Big Announcement
With Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi announcing in a press conference and
demonstration last Friday that they had a
device that produces 10 kilowatts of energy (enough to power five homes), and that they were now going into production with the
technology; you can imagine that the LENR community has been abuzz with interest
about this amazing disclosure. Though there has been plenty of skepticism,
the general tone seems to be increasingly positive, as can be seen in the
Three of the premier media sources in that arena are Jed Rothwell's LENR-CANR.org,
Steven Krivit's New Energy Times, and Infinite
Energy. A sampling of they're take on this is represented
here. There are other players in the cold fusion journalistic world as
well, including those that cater to non-English-speaking audiences.
LENR-CANR.org complied a Brief
Technical Description of the Experiment from various sources, and gave
us permission to reprint it here:
|Macy, M., Specifics of Andrea Rossi's "Energy Catalyzer"
Test, University of Bologna, January 14, 2011. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.
Specifics of Andrea Rossi's "Energy Catalyzer"
Test, University of Bologna, 1/14/2001
On January 14, 2011, Andrea Rossi submitted his "Energy Catalyzer"
reactor, which burns hydrogen in a nickel catalyst, for examination by
scientists at the University of Bologna and The INFN (Italian National
Institute of Nuclear Physics). The test was organized by Dr. Giuseppe
Levi of INFN and the University of Bologna and was assisted by other
members of the physics and chemistry faculties. This result was achieved
without the production of any measurable nuclear radiation. The
magnitude of this result suggests that there is a viable energy
technology that uses commonly available materials, that does not produce
carbon dioxide, and that does not produce radioactive waste and will be
economical to build.
The reactor used less than 1 gram of hydrogen, less than 1,000 W of
electricity to convert 292 grams of water per minute at ~20°C into dry
steam at ~101°C. The unit was turned ON and began producing some steam
in a few minutes, and once it reached steady state continued producing
steam until it was turned OFF. The amount of power required to heat
water 80°C and convert it to steam is approximately 12,000 watts. Dr.
Levi and his team will be producing a technical report detailing the
design and execution of their evaluation.
A representative of the investment group stated that they were
looking to produce a 20 kW unit and that within two months they would
make a public announcement. He declared that their completed studies
revealed a "huge, favorable difference in numbers" between the cost to
produce the Rossi Catalyzer and other green technologies. "We had a
similar demonstration six months ago with the same success we've had
today. We are almost ready with the industrialized product, which we
think is going to be a revolution. It is a totally green energy." The
representative offered that the company was called Defkalion Energy,
named for the father of the Greco Roman empire, and was based in Athens.
Giuseppe Levi, PhD in nuclear physics at the University of Bologna
and who works at INFN, offers exclusive comments on the test, which he
deemed "an open experiment for physicists. The idea was like a
conference: to tell everybody what was going on and eventually to start
new research programs on that topic."
The first measurements Levi described were energy measurements to
determine the input of energy inside the reactor and the output of
energy of the reactor. "I don't have conclusive data on radiation but
absolutely we have measured ~12 kW (at steady state) of energy produced
with an input of about just 400 watts. I would say this is the main
result. We have seen also this energy was not of chemical origin, by
checking the consumption of hydrogen. There was no measurable hydrogen
consumption, at least with our mass 2 measurement." By measuring with a
very sensitive scale, within a precision of a 10th of a gram, Levi
measured the weight of the hydrogen bottle before and after the
experiment "If the energy was of chemical origin you would have expected
to consume about 100 to 600 more than the sensitivity of the scale. You
measure the bottle before and after and then you see in your
measurements there was almost no hydrogen consumed."
The workings of the Rossi reactor was, Levi explained, unknown to
them because of "industry secrets." He said: "What we've done is to
measure the water in the flux and we are heating and making steam for
that water. We are measuring the water flux and carefully checking that
all the water was converted into steam, then it is easy to calculate
power that was generated. You are measuring the power that was going in
the system by quite a sensitive power meter. Initially the system
started up and we had 1 kW of input and then we reduce the input to just
400 W. The output energy was constant at about 12 kW."
The flow rate, Levi continued, was measured with a high precision
scale. "The flow rate was 146 g in 30 seconds. Using a simple
measurement gives a simple result. There was a pump putting in a
constant flux and what I have done is with the reactor completely
off take measurements we spent two weeks of the water that flowing
through the system to be certain of our calibration. After this
calibration period I have checked that the pump was not touched and when
we brought it here for the experiment it was giving the same quantity of
water during all the experiment. The water was coming from an Edison
well and the pump was putting it in the system. Then we were releasing
the steam into the atmosphere; there was not a loop."
To determine if the steam was coming out dry and at atmospheric
pressure, Professor Gallatini, a specialist in Thermochemics and a
former head of the Chemical Society of Italy, verified that all the
water came out as steam. "There was no water in the steam," Levi
certified. "The outer temperature measured was 101° centigrade at
atmospheric pressure." The instrument he used was a Delta OHM #
HD37AB1347 Indoor Air Quality Monitor. Gallantini inserted the probe
inside the exit pipe with the steam.
Levi was asked: How did you compute the thermal energy production by
the Energy Catalyzer (ECat)?
He responded, "The calculation is very, very simple. Because you know
the number of grams of water per second delivered to the ECat you know
you must raise the water to 100°C, this is the transient phase of
operation. Once the water is at 100°C the energy is used to make the
water into steam. It takes 2272 joules per gram to convert water at 100°C
to steam. Because the ECat provided more energy the steam became hotter,
101°C. So our conservative estimate of the steady state thermal output
of the ECat, neglecting thermal radiation and other losses, is just 2272
joules per gram multiplied by the 4.9 grams per second = 11, 057 joules
per second or Watts. When you realize that you have to add the energy to
raise the temperature of the water you get by about 80°C and the steam
by another 1°C the total thermal power the ECat releasing is about
12,400 Watts. These are not our refined estimate but they indicate that
the input electrical power of 400 W produces using an amount of hydrogen
less than a gram in a couple hours of operation we are seeing a system
with a power gain = 12,400/400 = 31."
Here is what Jed Rothwell posted on the News
page at LENR-CANR.org:
On January 14, 2011, Sergio Focardi and Andrea Rossi held a press
conference at the University of Bologna. They demonstrated a 10 kilowatt
nickel-light water cold fusion reactor. See Rossi's web site:
Focari and Piantelli have published many papers claiming excess heat from
nickel. Here is an
example from 1998. No attempts to replicate this by other groups have been
reported, although Mills and others have claimed excess heat from nickel using
somewhat different methods. Rossi received a
patent [PCT application].
We have complied a Brief
Technical Description of the Experiment [reprinted above] from
various sources, including photographs of the equipment, and we have uploaded
a short interview
with Prof. Levi who conducted the experiment, and a
list of recommendations for further tests by Prof. Nagel.
Here is a description of the calorimetry:
Brief Description of the Calorimetry in the Rossi Experiment at U.
Bologna, January 14, 2011
by Jed Rothwell
The experiment has been underway at U. Bologna since mid-December 2010. It
has been done several times. Several professors with expertise in related
subjects such as calorimetry are involved.
LIST OF MAIN EQUIPMENT IN EXPERIMENT
A hydrogen tank and a method of measuring the hydrogen flow accurate to 0.1
10 liter tank reservoir, which is refilled as needed during the run
Tube from pump to Rossi device (The Rossi device is known as an "ECat")
Outlet tube from the Rossi device, which emits hot water or steam
Thermocouples in the reservoir, ambient air and the outlet tube
An HD37AB1347 IAQ Monitor (Delta Ohm) to measure the relative humidity of the
steam. This is to confirm that it is "dry steam"; that is, steam only, with no
Alternating-current heater used to bring the Rossi device up to the working
The reservoir water temperature is measured at 13°C, ambient air at 23°C.
The heater is set to about 1000 W to heat up the Rossi device. Hydrogen is
admitted to the Rossi device.
The displacement pump is turned on, injecting water into the Rossi device
at 292 ml/min.
The water comes out as warm water at first, then as a mixture of steam and
water, and finally after about 30 minutes, as dry steam. This is confirmed
with the relative humidity meter.
As the device heats up, heater power is reduced to around 400 W.
The test run on January 14 lasted for 1 hour. After the first 30 minutes
the outlet flow became dry steam. The outlet temperature reached 101°C. The
enthalpy during the last 30 minutes can be computed very simply, based on
the heat capacity of water (4.2 kJ/kgK) and heat of vaporization of water
Mass of water 8.8 kg
Temperature change 87°C
Energy to bring water to 100°C: 87°C*4.2*8.8 kg = 3,216 kJ
Energy to vaporize 8.8 kg of water: 2260*8.8 = 19,888 kJ
Total: 23,107 kJ
Duration 30 minutes = 1800 seconds
Power 12,837 W, minus auxiliary power ~12 kW
There were two potential ways in which input power might have been measured
incorrectly: heater power, and the hydrogen, which might have burned if air
had been present in the cell.
The heater power was measured at 400 W. It could not have been much higher
that this, because it is plugged into an ordinary wall socket, which cannot
supply 12 kW. Even if a wall socket could supply 12 kW, the heater electric
wire would burn.
During the test runs less than 0.1 g of hydrogen was consumed. 0.1 g of
hydrogen is 0.1 mole, which makes 0.05 mole of water. The heat of formation of
water is 286 kJ/mole, so if the hydrogen had been burned it would have
produced less than 14.3 kJ.
New Energy Times
Here are a couple of links we put in our news today from what Steve Krivit has
posted most recently at New Energy Times:
Later today he posted a commentary
on the LENR-CANR.org report above.
Christy Frazier of the bi-monthly Infinite Energy wrote to me today:
For the sake of timeliness, I am just linking to Rothwell's write-ups for now. I have asked Scott Chubb to provide some additional commentary for a piece we will actually run in the next issue of the magazine (current issue already back from press).
So, no, we don't have anything written up from our own perspective at this time. I am not able to provide you specific feedback, since I have just gotten back to work after a number of days off and need to look through everything still, amid other pressing deadlines. I am copying Scott here, as he may be able to put a quick quote together for you.
Scott is a Technical Editor for Infinite Energy; he is the most knowledgeable editor we have on cold fusion-related topics.
Responding to this present page, Scott wrote: "Instead of saying that 10KW could provide the power needed for
five households, I would have said this amount could light 100 light bulbs. But this
is semantics. It's a nice write-up."
Also today, they posted a Focardi
& Rossi 10 kW Cold Fusion Device link from their home page to a page
On January 14, Sergio Focardi and Andrea Rossi held a press
conference at the University of Bologna and demonstrated a 10 kW nickel light
water cold fusion device (the ECat boiler).
See detailed information (including photos and videos) at:
Our editors are preparing coverage for Issue 96 (which will
also be posted online).
Established Swedish science magazine NyTeknik (New Technology) has examined the news around the Rossi experiments and have decided to publish this as a news item.
Rossi has a patent application, but he says that it does not contain proprietary information on the catalysts used in the device and the special processes utilized to prepare the powdered nickel.
Speculation on the internet continues as to what these catalysts may be and what special processes may be utilized. One possibility that has been suggested is
that sodium hydride (NaH) may be mixed in with the nano sized nickel powder. The hypothesis is that the NaH when heated would release hydrogen that would interact with the nickel powder. After this occurs the cell would be allowed to cool slightly (perhaps the need for a controllable input) to regenerate the NaH which would absorb hydrogen. Then the cycle would begin once again.
Such a cycle would be similar to some of the experiments performed by Black Light Power.
Additional ideas include special methods to "clean" the nickel powder of impurities, a method that
embeds the nickel powder in a ceramic that may act like a catalyst, and other methods.
It has been suggested on some internet forums that due to the fact that his patent
application is absent of such important information, it may not be
enforceable and this may partially explain his need for total secrecy about these special processes and methods.
These emerging bits of information, technical details, interviews, and accounts of the demonstration are making the argument in favor of this technology being legitimate more compelling. As the days progress we urge you to follow this story closely.
Given the interest in this technology, we plan to launch an overunity.com type
of forum for those interested in participating in that way. While we get
that set up, we have created a temporary H-Ni_Fusion
forum via Yahoo!Groups, which you are welcome to join.
And as usual, we will be posting other updates to our Directory:Andrea_A._Rossi_Cold_Fusion_Generator
feature page at PESWiki.com as they come along. You're welcome to help
out, as that is a publicly editable site, to help us keep track of the main
developments and coverage.
# # #
What You Can Do
- Pass this on to your friends and favorite news sources.
- Help us manage the PESWiki
feature page on this.
- Purchase a unit and/or encourage others who are able, to do so.
- We at PES Network are in a pinch right now. Donations
would be greatly appreciated.
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to stay abreast of the latest, greatest developments in the free energy
- Let professionals in the renewable energy sector know about the promise of
- Consider investing in Rossi's group.
This story is also posted at BeforeItsNews
Other PES Coverage
PESN Coverage of LENR
For a more exhaustive listing, see News:Rossi_Cold_Fusion
A Late Night Speculative Raving From Hank Mills - (PESN; October
Andrea Rossi's E-Cat Devours Lockheed's Hypothetical Compact Fusion Reactor - (PESN; October
The Inconel Mouse of Andrea Rossi's E-Cat - (PESN; October
Hell Freezes Over: Brian Ahern's Doubts on E-Cat Test Resolved - (PESN; October
Leaked Second Paper With High Magnification of Rossi's Nickel Particles Brings Replication Closer - (PESN; October
Sterling Allan on Coast to Coast AM about E-Cat breakthrough - (PESN; October
Revealed The Four Horsemen of Andrea Rossi's E-CatLithium Iron Nickel
Hydrogen - (PESN; October 10, 2014)
Fuel Analysis and Validation Paper Posted October 8, 2014 - (PESWiki;
October 9, 2014)
Digest -- August 22, 2014 - Safety Certification Obtained for Low and High Temperature E-Cats
LENR-to-Market Digest -- April 9, 2014 - Rumblings about pending E-Cat test results
LENR-to-Market Weekly -- March 6, 2014 - Lattice Energy transmutation (PESN)
LENR-to-Market Digest -- February 20, 2014 - Rossi Hopes to Retrofit Coal Power Plants With
LENR-to-Market Digest -- February 5, 2014 - Nanors availability announced at Cold Fusion 101 at
LENR-to-Market Weekly -- January 30, 2014 - Industrial Heat acquires E-Cat
LENR to Market Digest, January 22, 2014
- Blacklight Power claims MW capability (PESN)
LENR-to-Market Digest -- January 6, 2014 - Cherokee identified as
Rossi's partner (PESN)