Wireless Transmission: A Century of Power Politics Tussles Over
"Free" Energy's Price Tag
Hidden political interests repeatedly block attempts to bring
this energy-saving and cost-saving technology into being. How long will
the drama continue before North Americans are able obtain access to that
which Russians scientists have already achieved?
Haliburton, Ottawa, Canada
Pure Energy Systems News
Copyright © 2006
Nikola Tesla's claim on binary code kept
IBM from patenting the technology many years later.
Act I: Binary Code, Key to Pricing "Free" Energy, 1898
Among his many inventive pursuits, Nikola Tesla had created a "teleautomaton"
boat which could be remotely controlled. He used multiple transmitters and
differing frequencies to start, stop, steer and drive a four-foot-long
model, as well as to turn lighting on and off. It was a practical
demonstration unit for a submarine guidance system that Tesla was
proposing to the military. After the sinking of the Maine at Havana and
the launch of the Spanish Civil war, a stealth submarine ought to have had
a strong appeal; it seems shortsighted now that the Navy of that day
dismissed the idea.
At the Electrical Exhibition at Madison Square Garden in 1898 Nikola Tesla
was every inch the showman. To maximize audience reaction, he even made it
appear that the unmanned craft was responding to his gestures and words,
rather than to the signals being transmitted wirelessly by code. However,
it was only for a private audience of potential investors (including J.P.
Morgan and Cornelius Vanderbilt) and not for the general crowds that he
dramatized his presentation, and therefore reporters did not publicize
Tesla's invention. Instead the newspapers focused on Marconi's much less
advanced remote detonation system. Not even having the ability to tune
frequencies, Marconi's demonstrator Tom Edison Jr. accidentally blew up
some explosives stored in a desk as well as those planted in advance in
the model ships. (Ref.
Two aspects of Tesla's robotic boat are remarkable. First, this
represented the earliest use of wireless broadcasting publicly displayed,
though Tesla's experiments with it went back several years. The other is
that, as part of the submarine proposal, Tesla had invented binary code
and was using it as early as 1896.
Thus, decades later when IBM came to adopt this on-off zeroes-and-ones
coding as the basis of machine language, the company was not able to
patent it and thereby failed to obtain a monopoly. Because Tesla had
described it in his 1899 patent, binary code was already in the public
domain. (Ref. 2a)
Act II: No "Free" Energy (Niagara Falls vs. Wardenclyffe)
Scene 1: J.P. Morgan is Disgruntled
Briefly, the essential feature of Tesla's wireless transmission of power
was charge separation. The power was to be divided into scalars with the
opposite charge pushed into the ground, and the two aspects recombined at
the receiving end. Tesla planned to experiment with various frequencies to
measure wavelength, voltage and velocity, and to assess nodal points along
the equator and at the pole opposite the point of generation. The two
poles of the wireless broadcasting tower would be independent of the
existing magnetic poles of the planet.
The 187-foot-tall Wardenclyffe tower stood over a 12-foot diameter shaft
sunk 120 feet down. At 307 ft, overall, this structure was a bit over half
the height of the 600 feet that was originally conceived, possibly close
enough to the exact half to be harmonic with it. (Ref.
2b) The underground structure was included a spiral staircase to the
bottom and iron "terrestrial grippers" which were pipes
extending 300 feet out from the core. Further, Tesla built four
stone-lined tunnels large enough to crawl through, angled back toward the
surface and emerging 300 feet from the tower. All of these contributed
greatly to the cost of the facility.
click for enlargement
|Wardenclyffe diagram (by MSH)
Approximately to scale but guessing as to vertical placement of
shafts, pipes, etc., a representation in simplified form showing
what lay beneath the famous iconographic shape. Tesla may have
hoped to use resonating capacity of the aquifer that was slightly
below his shaft (and which may have limited the depth he could
delve to in that location).
Originally having agreed to develop his world-wide broadcast tower at
Niagara where there was an abundance of cheap power, Tesla had infuriated
J.P. Morgan by moving the project to Long Island. With no nearby waterfall
newly equipped with turbines of his own design, Tesla would have to
generate electricity more expensively by using fuel. Other than his
wanting to live in at the Waldorf Astoria in New York, there didn't seem
to be any good reason for the move.
Seeing this somewhat illogical (and possibly self-indulgent) move as a
breach of contract (Ref. 3), Morgan then
withheld funding from the inventor. As he was controlling 51% of the
company, Morgan was able to block others from investing as well.
Tragically, the tower was never finished, and creditors removed parts soon
after the impecunious Tesla first fired it up. In the few days that it was
in operation, Tesla was able to do some tests. In a letter to J. P. Morgan
written in 1904, Tesla stated that he had transmitted a commercial
quantity of electric power to Los Angeles with only a 2% loss. (Ref.
Since over standard transmission wires, losses of over 30% would be
considered normal for such an extremely long distance, this was an
exceptional achievement. Not only that, but a century later there is still
no long-distance direct transmission line from New York State to
California. Prohibitive losses of both power and money would result from
trying to send power some 3900 kilometers by conventional wires.
Scene 2: The Myth of "Free" Energy Takes Root
Enter another player, Bernard Baruch, then a bright young stockbroker.
According to Andrija Puharich, it was this man who planted in J.P.
Morgan's ear the misconceptions that have persisted to this day. Baruch
told the financier that Tesla was crazy, that he was offering this
broadcast energy for "free", and that investors would go broke
supporting him. (Ref. 5)
Baruch's source for this notion may in turn have been an article in an
1896 Sunday magazine section of the World, which announced Tesla's
wireless broadcast of a song. With a view to protecting his secrets, Tesla
had confused the reporter by not explaining that the energy for this
musical transmission had come from one of his oscillators on the other
side of Pike's Peak, four miles away. Thus this article planted the
erroneous idea that Tesla's wireless transmission had been possible
because the earth was filled with unlimited "free" energy. (Ref.
A canny but cautions investor, Morgan had got rich by thinking ahead. To
protect his other corporate structures, including the banking and mining
aspects that would be greatly enriched by the building of networks of
wires, he sabotaged the Tesla business he controlled. The concepts of a
wayward inventor, however brilliant, would have required him to gamble too
much on a single throw.
Scene 3: Tesla's Dream: A Profitable Monopoly
Although he did expect and state that conventional means of distribution
would be rendered obsolete by his broadcast power, Tesla was not so stupid
as to give away this continually-needed renewable product. Although
political and financial conflicts later forced him to back down from his
original royalty demand, he didn't start out by giving away electricity.
In his original patent deal with George Westinghouse, Tesla and his
partners had attached conditions, and had obtained a commitment to pay a
royalty of 2.50 per Watt!
In descriptions of experiments with electrocution – with which Tesla was
not involved – AC power got bad press by being associated with torturing
dogs and other large animals. Worst, a first human execution in the
"electric chair" was botched, causing widespread revulsion.
Because it was believed to be too dangerous, investors refused to pay for
converting to the 60 cycles per second needed to drive Tesla's AC
induction motor. George Westinghouse had to yield to their fears, and for
several years longer he retained his original 133 cycles per second. (Ref.
What Tesla had offered to Morgan was a world monopoly, which would have
been financial as well as informational. The patented binary code would
have enabled Tesla selectively to provide power for those paying for it,
and to block the flow of energy to anyone with a receiving station who was
This was the essential fact that neither Mr. Baruch nor news reporters of
that day could grasp – and which is still missing from typical
discussions of this and similar technologies today. Everyone is still
repeating the misconception fed to Morgan, i.e. that this wireless energy
was to be given away for free. That was never part of Tesla's plan.
Act III: Secret Policy blocks Wireless Transmission in Canada
Scene 1: Canadian Cabinet faces Energy Crunch, 1976
The Prime Minister of the day, Rt. Hon. Pierre Elliott Trudeau, was
confronted with the dismaying prospect of, for the first time, putting the
country into a deficit in order to fund not just the east-west pipeline,
but also the James Bay hydroelectric development and nuclear plants for
Ontario. A pipeline from Ellesmere Island to bring gas south from the rich
Arctic fields was turned down as too risky politically as well as too
To place this decision in context, in 1974 the Trudeau government had
agreed to adopt the so-called "free market" approach to public
debt. Prior to that and since 1938 when the central bank was nationalized
by the Canadian government, it had been creating capital for
infrastructure improvement by borrowing at nominal interest from its other
pocket. Only about 1% interest was needed to cover the public Bank of
Canada's operating expenses. (Ref.
Under this system , Canada climbed out of the "Great" Depression
in less than two years, financed a war effort against Hitler (while
America still sat on the sidelines), and lent money to a beleaguered
Britain. After WWII, this government-created money built megaprojects such
as the St. Lawrence Seaway without incurring substantive debt. Similarly,
the American colonies had financed their war of independence using their
own government-created money, and had paid off the debt within decades. In
contrast, George III's England had used bank-created money to finance its
colonial war against the rebellious colonies in 1783 and the British
people are still paying interest -- amounting so far to about four billion
-- to their financier class. The original 500 million principal borrowed
two centuries ago has never been paid down. (Ref
However, having turned its back on low-cost financing from its
nationally-owned bank, the Trudeau government would now have to borrow
from the private sector to realize these energy mega-projects. In effect,
this policy entailed "competing" with other nations to see who
could pay the most interest! Interest rates had skyrocketed in the 1970s,
and combined with compounding, were now a serious threat to national
Projected to be about five billion dollars; cost overruns, notably on the
nuclear plants, would eventually drive the expected deficit up to several
times that amount. The chief cost for the James Bay hydroelectric project
was the transmission system; the dams were constructed for about six
hundred million. "It's an ill wind blows nobody good," or so ‘tis
said. Wall Street and Montreal brokers, and suppliers such as Alcan were,
of course, very happy with the subsequent contracts for tower construction
Scene 2: PACE presents cost-saving alternative
Before all that went down, however, Canadian Senator Chesley W. Carter (Ref.
10a) from Newfoundland attempted to head off social and financial
disaster. As a member of the Senate Special Committee on Science Policy,
and a co-founder of PACE, the Planetary Association for Clean Energy,
Carter was in a position to put forward the wireless-transmission
|Senator Chesley Carter, left,
presides over meeting of PACE in 1977 during a presentation by
Andrew Michrowski, then of Canadian Secretary of State
Department, and now Chairman of PACE. Canadian public servants
are officially considered “apolitical” so that they are
not hired or fired to further the policies of whatever party
is in power.
Photo from PACE files.
In July 1976, working with Drs Andrija Puharich and Michrowski, Chesley
Carter prepared a proposal that would provide for the country's energy
needs without ballooning debt. Based on worldwide multi-year, background
research managed by the Senator, who conducted his enquiries with experts
invited to contribute their data, the project was presented to Trudeau.
To replace of all these expensive constructions and prevent the
indebtedness that would follow, Senator Carter advocated wireless energy
transmission. What the PACE proposal outlined was specifically a
Wardenclyffe setup for Canada that would take advantage of the country's
geography, transmitting power to where – and more importantly to when
– it was needed.
A significant percentage of electrical generating capacity is required
only for peak electricity consumption hours. In a country spanning four
time zones, using charge-separation wireless transmitting allows time to
be part of the energy equation. The part of the country that is still
asleep and consuming less energy (British Columbia) can transmit its
excess to provinces where morning peak load is in full swing (Ontario and
Quebec), three hours earlier by the clock. A few hours later, the roles
can be reversed. That would be a true "national energy policy."
Using charge separation and recombination at the receiving end is
practical because, according to Puharich, also a founding member of PACE,
the energy transmission is fast – probably faster than the speed of
light. And the planet would behave like a balloon being scraped. Being
transmitted by the medium contained within the skin, the energy is felt
all over its surface.
Carter had conveyed further proof of the validity of Tesla's concept to
the Prime Minister in the form of experimental data from Arthur H.
Matthews, the last living technician who had personally worked with Nikola
Tesla. Matthews provided a map showing the extent of transmission
experiments performed in Quebec from 1828 to 1932. (Ref.
10b) According to Matthews, they transmitted power over a distance of
150 miles with only 2% loss, consistent with the Wardenclyffe result Tesla
had reported to Morgan in 1904. (Ref.
Senator Carter had also taken the precaution of sending Puharich's paper
on the Tesla transmitter to the Research Division of the Library of
Parliament. PACE still has on file the reply from Dean Clay, who verified
that the equations used to explain the Tesla wireless transmission were
Clay admitted that the interpretation (of the electrical phenomena) seemed
to move into a philosophical area he didn't feel fully able to address. He
stated, "… physicists appear not to have ascribed a physical
significance to the advanced potential since it seems to violate our
notion of causality. And I would anticipate that the engineering
profession would be even more inclined to disregard this half of the
solution to the inhomogenous wave equation, being more pragmatic in their
use of the physics." (Ref.
That cautiously balanced reply did not really set the stage for the
devolution that followed.
Scene 3: hitting the brick wall
In a reply to a handwritten request from the Prime Minister to consider
carefully the Tesla wireless electricity transmission proposal, the
National Research Council discredited the concept. Dr. David Peat – the
well-known science writer – had been engaged by NRC president Dr.
Schneider to draft this letter.
The content of this infamous letter can be inferred from quotes
attributed to Peat in a newspaper article published in that period. Peat
scoffed at the notion that the Russians were experimenting with wireless
transmission, and made various other statements showing that he was not
familiar with the scientific documentation. "Tesla worked at a
time," says Peat, "when we were fairly ignorant about the
ionosphere and about electricity in general."
This astonishing statement, implying a widely acknowledged master of
electricity was as ignorant as the least of his contemporaries, could only
come from someone who knew little about Tesla's expertise in adjusting
voltages, frequencies and energy systems, not to mention his study of
earth currents and weather effects.
Peat is also quoted as saying that Tesla's method would be
"incredibly inefficient" and that it "wouldn't pay" to
do it that way. He also explicitly misrepresents PACE's position:
"The proposal seems," says Peat, "to involve exciting the
ionosphere, oscillating it, and extracting more energy that you put
in." In making this smear, Peat was clearly attempting to tar Carter
and associates with the much-maligned "perpetual motion" and
"over-unity" brush. However, to "over-unity" the
Carter/PACE proposal made no mention and no claim. PACE documentation
refers only to lossless transmission as the goal, and to 2% loss as an
actual achieved experimental result. (Ref.
In reaction to the NRC's negative posture, Trudeau wrote to Senator
Carter with the comment that the NRC people were "agnostics". (Ref.
And so, history was made, and Canada went into debt over the James Bay
hydroelectric dams and transmission lines (now possibly facing
white-elephant status as water levels decline (Ref.
13); over nuclear (Ontario's aging reactors need expensive repairs or
even more expensive decommissioning); and over maintaining the oil and gas
status-quo by building the trans-Canada pipeline from Alberta's gas fields
into Eastern Canada.
Because of this debt arising from a dishonest manipulation of science,
Canadian taxpayers will be throwing good money after bad for at least
another generation – and probably much longer since Ontario has just
decided to build a new nuclear plant.
Later that year, Dr. Schneider was rewarded by receiving an Order of
Canada designation, the country's highest honour.
Scene 4: Extracting the skeleton from the
Later, Senator Carter summoned to a Senate inquiry the author of NRC's
negative letter. Dr. Michrowski, who also attended this inquiry, recounted
how Carter became red in the face when he found out the dynamics behind
the stonewalling. Dr. Peat explained that his superior, the President of
the National Research Council Dr. William George Schneider, had instructed
him – offhand and without giving him permission to examine the
modern-day scientific explanation of the Tesla system – to reject the
At the inquiry, Carter asked Peat if he realized that he was writing this
letter to the Prime Minister of the country. When Peat answered,
"yes", the Senator's face again reddened with anger.
As a science writer, Peat merely did the assignment he was given. And over
time it became apparent that the negative conclusion was not his own, nor
was it his last word on the subject.
Later in the spring as he observed first-hand the Timmins project (see
below) designed to demonstrate Tesla's principles, Peat's attitude was
beginning to be more positive. (Ref.
14) Later still, he collaborated on a book with Dr. Bohm, exploring
the Bohm-Aharanov effect – which describes how scalars can recombine
into standard electromagnetic phenomena – and which also shows the
soundness of the scientific arguments presented by PACE. Peat's later work
thus soundly contradicts the content of this letter that as part of his
job at NRC he'd had to write to the Prime Minister dismissing Tesla's
Scalars are the key to the Tesla wireless energy transmission, which, as
Tesla stated, involves "non-Hertzian" electromagnetics. Now
known as Higher Symmetry Electrodynamics, this theory is currently being
articulated by various scientists, including Dr. Myron W. Evans, Thomas E.
Bearden, and a Canadian, J.P. Vigier. In 2005, Evans was singled out by
Queen Elizabeth II for special recognition when she bestowed upon him the
rarely-granted Civil List Pension for outstanding and exceptional
contribution to modern science. (Ref. 15)
Scene 5: blocked at every turn
Son of a Falconbridge engineer, Tim Richardson of Timmins, Ontario, wanted
to use an abandoned mine to send power without wires to anywhere that it
was needed. He reasoned that if Tesla had constructed a deep shaft for
Wardenclyffe, then a mineshaft could be converted to this purpose, and
that only the top part of the tower would need to be built over it.
As Project Enersave (a make-work project under the auspices of the Energy
Conservation Branch of the Canadian federal Department of Energy, Mines
and Resources), Richardson was able to get a low-cost lease on a working
space, and received donated equipment including building materials,
cables, insulators and other items used for testing. He set up a 10-foot
pancake coil for small-range tests in the Timmins area of Northern
His technique would have been based in part on the very positive Tesla
wireless transmission replication experiments that had been conducted in
the preceding months by a group of Winnipeg electrical engineers, most of
whom were working for Manitoba Hydro. This group, which called itself WERG
(Winnipeg Energy Research Group), was led by Fred A. Jost. (Ref.
16) This man had managed to find a Croatian priest to translate from
Serbo-Croatian to English Nikola Tesla's 1899-1900 Colorado Springs
scientific notebook. This gave to WERG the details of his many experiments
in wireless electricity transmission, and the Winnipeg engineers took
advantage of this source. Every participant donated his time.
Concerned about possible negative effects of transmission-line EMF fields
on their livestock, as well as wanting to forestall loss of their land to
the power company (Ref.
17), a group of farmers in Minnesota had expressed interest in having
a receiving station for the long-range test. These farmers were willing to
put up $276,000 toward the project. In co-operation with Richardson, their
group went ahead with building a receiving coil.
The Ontario Hydro office in Timmins was also willing to supply 20 MW of
power for the experiment. However, when the Toronto head office of Ontario
Hydro got wind it, management blocked the proposal by refusing to supply
the electric power -- even if it was paid for – to do the experiment.
Not willing to give up, in 1977 Carter took the Timmins proposal to his
home province, requesting that the provincial government have a test done
to transmit 20 MW from its generating plant at Churchill Falls on the
mainland to St. John's, the provincial capital, located on the island,
In the days before Grand Banks gas extraction, in order to export the
power generated at its Churchill Falls installation in Labrador, the
province had to sell it at very low cost to Quebec, which is the adjacent
administrative territory that is part of the same land mass. Quebec then
cheerfully boosted the price about ten times to sell to New York, and
reaped the profits, now into the $700 million range annually.
Wireless transmission would have enabled the easternmost island province
to export electricity directly, and to gain needed revenue. Carter was
aware of additional potential hydroelectric sites on the Lower Churchill
which could be developed outside the terms of the Quebec contract. (Ref.
18) Wireless transmission of this power could have given his home
province the ability to sell directly for competitive rates to the
maritime and eastern-U.S. energy markets.
However, the Newfoundland government (since then officially named
"Newfoundland and Labrador" to underscore the importance of the
Churchill Falls generating station against possible claims from a future
independent Quebec) said that it did not have even $5,000 to put up toward
this experiment. That figure represented their estimate of the cost of
setting aside and cleaning up a small section of a transformer yard.
Scene 6: the cat jumps out of the bag
A few years later, PACE chairman Dr. Andrew Michrowski received a phone
call from retiring NRC president, chemist Dr. William Schneider.
Astonishingly, this man who had previously blocked PACE's efforts now had
the effrontery to ask them to hire him. "Now I will finally be able
to do what I want, since you do the most exciting work in the
country," he said.
Dr. Michrowski took the opportunity to find out what really happened when
the Prime Minister's wireless transmission initiative was snubbed by
Schneider's direct orders. The telephone conversation went something like
AM: "Why did you tell Peat to block Trudeau's proposal?"
WS: "Because of the North American Energy policy."
AM: "What ‘North American Energy Policy'?"
WS: "North America is supposed to use oil, gas and coal, nuclear, and
microwave transmissions from satellites, in that order. "
Michrowski then asked Senator Chesley Carter, with whom had frequent
conversations, whether he had ever heard of this "North
American" energy policy. Although he was a member of the Upper House
of Parliament, co-founder of PetroCanada, and developer of the massive
Churchill Falls hydroelectric facility, Chesley knew nothing of this
policy. Further, he stated that Trudeau, the Prime Minister of the
country, did not know about it either.
This "North American" policy was apparently being dictated from
Washington, DC, or perhaps from an international cartel of energy
interests, and enforced by the simple, effective means of covertly using a
few key highly-placed scientific administrators, and a science writer, to
ridicule any paradigm-shifting proposal.
Act IV: Canadians Try Again, 1987 - 1988
Scene 1: The Prime Minister's Wife
Unlike practical proposals, ideas are hard to kill. Because of her
Yugoslavian background, Mila Mulroney, wife of the new Prime Minister
(Brian Mulroney), was aware of Tesla's achievements and theories. On this
new go-round, it was she who approached Marcel Masse, Minister of Energy,
Mines and Resources Canada, to urge implementation of the great Serbian
inventor's wireless-transmission concept.
Dr. Andrew Podgorski, of the Canada National Research Council's Division
of Electrical Engineering and one of the directors of the prestigious
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), wrote a positive
critique of the proposal submitted by PACE. Their updated proposal called
for Canada to designate an electrical power source anywhere in the nation,
and to transmit a commercial quantity of this power – at least 100
MegaWatts – wirelessly to a receiver in an Electrical Engineering
building in the West Virginia University campus.
In his response to his superiors at National Research Council, and
ultimately, to Mila Mulroney, Podgorski stated, "It was always my
opinion that the old Tesla RF generating scheme was actually correct. I am
convinced that a scale model of Tesla's arrangement could be easily
There was much excitement at this response.
Scene 2: Heavyweight Backers Assemble
This time the proposal had more backers, including Claude Bélanger, a
venture capitalist from Montreal, who wanted to finance it to the tune of
one million dollars. He emphasized that he was not offering charity; this
would be a business venture.
Professional scientific support came from McGill University (Prof. David
Brooks), University in Montreal (Prof. Kimon Valaskakis), and the West
Virginia University in Morgantown, WV (Prof. James E. Smith). Not least,
an industry heavyweight, the Battelle Institute of Columbus, Ohio (Dr.
James F. Corum), the largest private research organization and think tank,
had endorsed the idea.
Further, although the company's legal staff had advised caution about
going outside the corporate charter, numerous IBM personnel were keen on
the idea. Senior research chemist, inventor of the floppy disk, and
founding PACE member, Marcel Vogel (Ref.
19a) was aware that it was Tesla who had created binary code
originally. Anticipating a monopoly in computers, IBM had been thwarted
and its highest corporate levels had "discovered" Nikola Tesla
when the US Patent Office had turned down that opportunity because of
Tesla's "prior art" in binary code (1899).
A creative outside-the-box scientist, Vogel had been promoting, with
Senator Carter, within the IBM corporate command, the commercial
significance of efficient, pollution-free wireless transmission of
electrical energy. The company was following closely the turn of events
since Mila Mulroney's stewardship of the idea. (Ref.
19b) Vogel took a leave of absence from the company to come to Ottawa
and participate in the negotiations.
The McGill study indicated that there would be no adverse environmental
effects. West Virginia's Governor John D. Rockefeller intimated to the
university in his state that if they could get the Canadian government
involved, the state would support them as well. (Ref.
20) His interest in the project could have been related to the state's
coal producing area; the hope of being able to generate power and sell it
farther afield might increase the profits above what could be made from
merely selling and shipping the unprocessed coal.
Along with a group of electrical engineers based in Richmond, Virginia,
the Morgantown research group had conducted experiments duplicating
Tesla's turn-of-the-previous-century Colorado Springs wireless experiments
on a sequential basis. In a the research paper issued by West Virginia
University for PACE, the authors concluded that for repetitively
processing electrical energy, Tesla's transmitter had "a power
processing efficiency orders of magnitude superior to anything available
The West Virginia group offered to transmit electricity from any place in
Canada to any other location in the country, no matter how far – east to
west, the arctic to the south, whatever. They were ready to take on a
challenge. This being a two-summer make-work project to benefit the
University and its students, the budget officially attached to the
proposal was four and a half million dollars. However, as a scaled-down
exercise, the actual work could have been done by the Canadian NRC for
about $200,000 per year for three years, according to Dr. Podgorski. (Ref.
Given this cohesive corporate and intellectual backing, one might have
expected a breakthrough.
Scene 3: NRC Squelchdown, an Encore
However, at a whole-day meeting between the interested parties and the
National Research Council, NRC's Vice President in charge of Technology
Transfer, Dr. Keith Glegg, was the only opponent of the plan. And it was
this one man who blocked it. He called the idea crazy and, to the
amazement of the Canadian university and business representatives present,
Glegg stated that Tesla's ideas should be left in the past.
Committed to its vast transmission-line system and to profits from
Newfoundland's Churchill Falls, Quebec firmly turned its back on the
potential available from wireless power. Along with a negative letter to
the Quebec Minister of Energy, the Director of Hydro Quebec's Research
Institute (IREQ) submitted to the provincial government a paper rejecting
the PACE proposals as impossible.
With echoes of the Peat letter to Trudeau (which could have been
circulated among institutions in Quebec), M. Boulet repeats the notion
that 100 years ago, Tesla didn't understand the properties of the
atmosphere. The pronouncements made in this paper indicate that IREQ did
not analyze any of the experimental data supplied by Matthews, but applied
a different set of standards to discredit it.
The IREC paper goes on to claim that the characteristic impedance in the
air would cause a 50% loss of power at the transmitter and another 50%
would be lost at the receiving end. The conclusion he draws is that this
would render Tesla's system much less effective than conventional
transmission over wires. (Ref.
To Michrowski, once again stymied by an official roadblock at the highest
level, all of this did not add up. How could one man's opinion based on
error and on denying validated research stand in the way of a vast array
of very credible scientists and universities, this time even joining
forces with a strong private-sector backer and think tank?
Was this the "North American Energy Policy" rearing its ugly
head again? The symptoms were similar: one highly-placed official in a
government scientific organization manages to discredit dozens of
well-qualified researchers, to negate their experimental work, and to
thwart carrying out of the all-important practical experiment that would
provide more modern confirmation of Tesla's theories.
Scene 4: The Bronfman Skirmish
Something similar occurred during the 1979 United Nations Conference on
Long-Term Energy Resources in Montreal, where PACE was represented by
Fundamentals-of-Physics Professor Elizabeth Rauscher of University of
California in Berkeley, and by Dr. Andrija Puharich, an expert in advanced
One evening, Barbara Bronfman invited the PACE group to her Westmount
residence to make a full-scale presentation on the Tesla wireless
transmission technology to the entire Bronfman clan. In the light of a
positive full-scale technology-assessment and due-diligence study by the
Montreal investment analyst Lafferty, Harwood, the proposal deserved
attention from movers and shakers. The Bronfmans were and are known to be
top-level financiers and would have been capable of singlehandedly funding
a worldwide wireless transmission system.
Well into the presentation by the PACE scientists, which lasted several
hours, suddenly there was a violent outburst from two "science
attachés" who came from the Israeli embassy in Washington, D.C..
These two men adamantly poo-poohed the whole technology.
Dr. Puharich, who had worked in Israel with top-level government officials
there, was able to identify one of these "science advisors" as a
MOSSAD (Israeli secret service) agent, whose tactical object may have been
to disable civilian application of the technology. And, especially since
the Bronfmans had the clout to enable it on a meaningful scale worldwide,
apparently their initiative had to be nipped in the bud. The incident has
taken a tragic turn, since it was shortly followed by the break-up of the
Barbara's marriage to Charles Bronfman.
Scene 5: Final Exit, The Prime Minister's Wife, 1990
In a dismissive one-page answer to Dr. A. Michrowski, listing Mrs. Mila
Mulroney as receiving a copy, William C. Winegard, Minister of Science in
the Mulroney government, put a final nail in the coffin of his leader's
wife's initiative. (Ref.
Winegard states, "It is understood that such a system would use the
earth/ionosphere cavity as an electromagnetic resonator to achieve the
transfer of large amounts of power. Although this approach is possible in
theory, the current sensitivities of the general populace about long term
exposure to lower level electromagnetic fields raises a large practical
problem for any wireless power transmission system."
Coming from a Minister of Science, this letter shows a dismal lack of
willingness to grasp the difference between conventional electromagnetics
which cause magnetic fields due to leakage of energy, and scalar
transmission which is virtually lossless and which is not EMF. Ironically,
this lip-service to the public's distrust of electromagnetic fields leads
to continuation of the very type of transmission lines which do cause the
problems about which people continue to raise health concerns.
After inadvertently admitting to this ignorance in saying, "Based on
our present knowledge [?] of the Tesla Technology and the practical
problems it would have to surmount in use," Winegard concludes,
"we do not feel that it offers a viable alternative to the electrical
power transmission technology now in use."
Both Mila Mulroney and Dr. Michrowski could see the lack of science in
this reply. The story doesn't end there, however.
Act V: Post-communist Russians Embrace Tesla
Scene 1. (Flashback) Mysterious signals, 1977
A Soviet scientist was reported to have been in Quebec interviewing the
last assistant to Nikola Tesla known to be still living, Arthur H.
Matthews, concerning this wireless technology. Concerned about cold-war
politics, Matthews was reluctant, as quoted by the newspapers, to tell
anyone with a Russian-sounding name anything that would be useful. (Ref.
However, these interviews were actually part of a massive multi-year,
interdisciplinary National Academy of Sciences exercise. The objective was
to get a handle on not-yet-applied technologies originally discovered or
researched by Nikola Tesla.
PACE went to the Canadian Department of Communications to request
monitoring of extremely low-frequency energy signals emanating from then
In response to PACE's request, the Canadian Department of Communications
turned on all nine radio-frequency listening stations across the country.
This system was able to determine that although these signals were
originating several thousand miles east of Canada, the same signals
rebounded from the South, in an anti-pode located in the ocean off New
Zealand west, and with greater intensity, half an hour later.
This phenomenon of signal magnification had been reported by Nikola Tesla
in his Colorado Springs wireless energy transmission experiments. This
antipode data suggested that the Soviets had cracked the non-Hertzian
(scalar) electromagnetic aspect of Tesla technology. Because of complaints
about communications being disrupted, the Russians reduced the frequency
and duration of the signals, making them harder to study. (Ref.
Dr. Puharich and other US and Canadian scientists in the PACE network
analysed the waveforms and non-linearity of the Soviet emissions. However,
all public reports at the time were highly speculative, as there was not
the coming and going between Russia and "the West" that occurred
since the "Iron Curtain" was scrapped.
Nevertheless, the Soviet emissions did solicit widespread interest in the
military and intelligence community.
Scene 2: (Flashback) Military Intellectual Containment
In 1978, Canada's Department of National Defence recommended that its
military officials were no longer to engage in any scientific activity –
nor to co-operate with the international PACE network – especially if
the work was associated with Tesla technology. This directive was shared
with military scientists at the NATO Ramstein AFB and Kirtland AFB.
After admitting that he was not qualified to evaluate "the
feasibility of the purported applications of Tesla's work", the
Director of Strategic Analysis warns, "investigations of this
heretofore ‘fringe' subject can still be fraught with danger to an
academic career." (Ref.
24) He expressed concern about the "kook factor" in new-age
aficionados cosying up to Tesla and degrading the air of scientific
Also in the late 1970s, Senator Carter had traveled to Washington to try
to defend the proposal. The CIA and US Defense groups held technical
sessions with Dr. Puharich, and even Senator C. W. Carter in trying to
size up the assessments and analyses that had been made in Ottawa.
Unfortunately, because of the novelty and the advanced state of the Tesla
technology, this influx of information divided specialists within the US
security establishment into confrontations. Some US-based PACE scientists
found themselves put into personal risk situations, including fire-bombing
of their homes, forcing them to seek refuge in other countries.
Similar divisions appear to have occurred within the Soviet bloc, where
some were questioning whether the new Tesla technology applications must
be confined only to military uses, and not also to have any civilian
application and benefit. This question was discussed openly especially
after an Ottawa presentation by PACE, which several dozen staff from the
Soviet embassy attended.
Scene 3: Russian Science Achieves the Goal
After the fall of the Soviet system, money was very scarce in Russia,
notably for scientists. There was none left over to pay for towers and
wires, especially in remote regions. By implementing Tesla wireless
transmission, Russians achieved what the West could not, blocked as it was
by a retrograde policy being enforced at the highest levels.
The Russians' technological feat was announced in an international
renewable-energy conference hosted in Montreal by Natural Resources Canada
in the year 2000. This technological development was part of the
"fallout" of the massive Soviet Academy of Sciences research of
the 1970s, which had been mostly directed towards military objectives. In
2001, PACE released a report authored by several Russian scientists from a
division of the world's largest (at the time) energy company. This report
explaining their work was endorsed by the All-Russian Research Institute
for Electrification of Agriculture. (Ref.
Unfortunately, the various details explained by Prof. Strebkov about how
the technology was designed and implemented did not seem to engender any
interest among the audience, although this included top Canadian energy
experts. Also present were the self-described "green technology"
decision-makers in Hydro Québec, McGill University and such organizations
as Greenpeace and the Sierra Club. These groups are still ignoring the
Scene 4: SWEPS takes Centre Stage
The Single-Wire Electric Power System (SWEPS) utilizes a modified Tesla
transformer at the generation site to produce a high-frequency reactive
capacitive "acoustic-electrical" (or longitudinal) current. At
the receiving site is a reverse-wound Tesla transformer, a standard
rectifier, and an inverter which turns the received signal back into
standard transverse-wave electromagnetics. These bring the reactive
high-frequency electric power back to 50 or 60Hz standard mode.
According to their experiments, the Russians state that SWEPS has quasi
super-conducting properties, and that there are no conduction-resistance
losses for copper, aluminum, steel, tungsten, carbon, water or even damp
earth. Prototypes tested include 230V, 10KV and 200V. The Russians expect
that GigaWatt levels of transmission could be successfully transmitted.
The SWEPS system confers an obvious advantage on the Russian economy for
developing agriculture and saving costs. Not least, it avoids the
instability of relying on wind and other intermittent sources of off-grid
power. The Russians propose an Asia-European superconducting wireless
power trading system to connect solar generating systems of equal
capacity, including Spain, Astrakhan near the Caspian Sea and one in the
far eastern zone. These could supply solar power in the summer. During the
winter, solar power could be transmitted to the north from Africa, India
This wireless seasonal trading in energy would balance need with capacity,
and reduce losses from transmission. The Russian scientists' report
provides detailed equations along with an analysis of the methods to be
In comparison, with its reliance primarily on fuels, the "North
American Energy Policy" sounds like something from the stone age
designed to keep us in the past. In the face of mounting debt and prices,
we have to ask, "Who benefits from the status quo?" And is it
only about money, or is a supposed military advantage what is being sought
to the detriment of all else in society?
Wireless transmission is an idea whose time has come, not once, but many
times. We who are stuck in North American can only envy the freedom of
scientists in the eastern hemisphere to pursue the objectives that eluded
both Tesla himself and all Western scientists since his time, apparently
due to financial and political interests who prefer the existing
Advances in programming and encryption beyond what Tesla envisioned when
he created binary code should provide a way for the costs of this
broadcast energy to be recovered from subscribers, plus a reasonable
profit level. If we can now lay to rest the fiction that the broadcast
energy would in any way be 'free' and thus anathema to those in the energy
business, that financial resistance to wireless energy can finally be
And none too soon. The wire-based grid is aging, as is the population of
linesmen who are able to maintain it. According to a representative of the
Ontario trade union, few apprentices have been hired in recent years to
replace them. While private energy companies like the idea of making money
by charging for electricity, no one likes paying the costs of keeping all
these wires strung up everywhere. Every windstorm causes long-lasting
power outages as poles and wires are damaged by wind and blown debris or
tumbling trees. The need for a new system is becoming more obvious all the
Wireless energy would address all of these cost problems, as well as
removing a major eyesore from cities and countryside alike. Lands tied up
in easements could be released for redevelopment as deemed suitable by
local administrations. To achieve twenty-first century efficiency demands
a phase-out of the costly, obsolete, wire-based transmission system.
# # #
WIZARD: The Life and Times of NIKOLA TESLA, Biography of a Genius, by
Mark J. Siefer. Citadel Press, 1998. ISBN 1-8065-1960-6 Pp.193-5.
Ref. 2a. Interview,
Dr. Andrew Michrowski, Chairman, Planetary Association for Clean
Energy (PACE). Dr. Michrowski's documentation, and his reminiscences
concerning key players in this unfolding drama, form the basis of this
Ref. 2b. The height of this
tower is variously reported to be 175, 178 and 187 feet (see < http://www.wr6wr.com/newSite/articles/features/olderfeatures/tesla.html
>). The latter is the number that adds up to 307 total height of the
working charge-separation shaft-tower combination given in Wizard, Chapter
Ref. 3. Wizard, p. 285
Ref. 4. Letter
seen and read by Dr. Michrowski while visiting the Smithsonian
Institution in Washington, DC.
Ref. 5. As quoted in Wizard, P.
300. Baruch later rose to become a Wall Street banker, and as part of the
Wilson delegation attended the Versailles Peace Conference.
Ref. 6. Wizard, p. 166.
Ref. 7. Wizard, pp. 53-60.
In the 1930s, a five-hour exposé in Parliament by respected Canadian
attorney Gerald McGeer revealed evidence stricken from the public record
but provided to him through secret service agents who had been at the John
Wilkes Booth trial. McGeer recounted that it was powerful international
bankers who, angered by Lincoln's creation of the debt-free
"greenback", had fought the president throughout the civil war
and topped it off by arranging for him to be murdered. He stood in the way
of their plans for worldwide control of money.
A report in the Vancouver Sun on 2 May 1934 broke the story in Canada and
made it an election issue. The Liberals came to power on the promise that
they would change the newly-created private central bank – set up by the
Conservatives in imitation of the privately-owned "Federal
Reserve" (which is not federal and has no reserves) ¬– into a
Ref. 9. The Evil Empire:
Globalization's Darker Side by Paul Hellyer. Chimo Media, 1997. p. 31.
A Cabinet Minister in the Trudeau government and retired founder of the
Canadian Action party, Hellyer outlines the problem of debt-based currency
For an overview, see: < http://www.cfoss.com/hellyer.html
> and (< http://www.canadianactionparty.ca/Main.asp?SetLanguage=English
> The CAP site provides a user-friendly version of economics in
"comic book" form – to turn pages, click "Next" at
bottom of image.). Also see MELTDOWN; Money, debt and the Wealth of
Nations, William Krehm, Editor COMER publications, 1999. The website
concise summaries of monetarist policy and its ramifications.)
Ref. 10a. At that time,
Senator Carter was meeting several times a week with Dr. Michrowski to
discuss the scientific and technical issues. Though the current
Conservative government may soon change this, Canadian Senators are still
being appointed to office. Since he did not have to play to a constituency
or face re-election against a corporate-funded smear campaign, Chesley
Carter was free to pursue original scientific initiatives. Though not all
appointed senators deserve equal admiration, some such as Carter became
experts in various fields and worked hard for the benefit of the country.
10b. Letter from Senator C.W. Carter to David Schreck, 10 May 1977.
From Senator Carter's "Correspondence on Clean Energy" (MG 32
– C33 Vol. 3 File 12), now in "The Rooms", the Archives of
Newfoundland and Labrador, which provides photocopies upon request for a
moderate fee. (http://www.therooms.ca/archives/contact.asp)
10c. Letter from Senator C.W. Carter to Nikola Fodor, who originated
from Tesla's homeland. 21 May 1977. (Preserved in TheRooms archive.)
Ref. 11. Letter sent 2nd
February 1977 from Dean N. Clay, Chief of the Science and Technology
Division to Senator C. W. Carter, from a copy in the PACE files.
"Scientists agree to disagree on value of energy without
wires", by Ed Ungar. Unfortunately the name of the newspaper is not
within the image-frame of the photocopy obtained from the Carter archives,
nor is its date, but its content suggests it was published early in 1997.
Ref. 12b. Both
Dr. Michrowski and Senator Carter had read this letter, and testified
to its contents. Unfortunately it seems that no copy of the original has
come to light, as far as this author has been able to find out as of
publication date of this article.
Ref. 13 Northern Tidal Flows:
Reliable New Power Source for Quebec? by Harry Valentine. (internal link)
Ref. 14. See
below. Letter from Chesley W. Carter to A.H. Matthews, 7 May 1977.
"I had a telephone conversation with Tim Richardson yesterday and he
seemed quite pleased with the progress he was making. He told me that Dr.
Peat, who …compiled the report for the NRC, has changed his attitude
considerably and has become quite interested." (From Carter's
correspondence file 3/12., from TheRooms Archive)
Evans, who is from Wales, is the only living scientist with this status.
Two previous Civil List recipients were Michael Faraday, (1797 - 1867),
and James Prescott Joule (1818 - 1889)."
Jost was designer of the DC High Voltage line that spans from Northern
Manitoba to the Dakotas, Later, he was to become director of the research
arm of the Canadian Electrical Association, which is made up of
stakeholders for the Canadian electric utilities, manufacturers and
Ref. 17. Letter
from Sen. Carter to Nikola Fodor (President of Electrovert, a
Montreal-based high-tech company), 21 May 1977. Carter recounts progress
of the Timmins project, and describes the Wisconsin farmers' involvement.
(Carter archive 3/12)
Letter from C.W. Carter to Frederic Stoessel (former U.S. Ambassador
to the Soviet Union) 16 July 1977. (Carter archive 3/12.)
Ref. 19a. Before joining
IBM, Vogel held about a dozen patents on his own. Having become
wealthy through his invention of fluorescent colours, he worked purely for
Was IBM hoping for a business opportunity in writing the code for a
worldwide power transmission system? No information to confirm or deny
this possibility has been disclosed to date; however, if that was in the
company's wish list, Tesla's idea for coding wireless power to subscribers
might well have served as the inspiration.
Ref. 20. Dr.
Michrowski's verbal report based on knowing the West Virginia
University professors personally. Why was the Canadian government needed =
to take on the project? Was this because Rockefeller knew about the North
American Energy Policy? Did Washington's opposition to Tesla's science
mean that the U.S. might interfere with these experiments?
21. "The Distribution of Electrical Power by Means of Terrestrial
Cavity Resonator Modes", co-authored by James F. Corum,
Department of Electrical Engineering, and James E. Smith, Mechanical &
Aerospace Engineering, PACE, 5 December 1986.
22a. Letter from Dr. Andrew Podgorski, PhD, to Dr. Andrew Michrowski
as President of PACE, 3 September 1987. (Copy in PACE files.) Podgorski
stated that he believed a long (6 km) ionized channel would be needed to
create excitation of the earth cavity. He was not sure whether
"lossless" excitation was possible, and therefore advocated a
scaled-down laboratory experiment to demonstrate whether the concept would
22b. Letter from M. Lionel Boulet, Directeur, IREQ, to M. Claude Dumas,
Chef du Cabinet du Ministre Délégué à l'Energie, 16 join 1977. In
French; rough translation by author follows.
(a) "… les hypothèses de depart de Tesla, au début du siècle,
reposaient sur une mauvaise connaissance des propriétés de l'atmosphère."
(b) "Le problème de la transmission de l'information au moyen
d'une antenne est simplement l'adaptation de l'impèdance d'un émetteur
à cette impedance caractérestique de l'espace, mais dans ce processus, y
a perte de la moitié de l'énergie, et une perte équivalente à la
Forwarded to Dr. Michrowski by M. Dumas.
23a. Letter from William C. Winegard, Minister of Science, to Dr. A
Michrowski, President, Planetary Association for Clean Energy, 8 June
1990, CC to Mrs. Mulroney.
23b. Ottawa Journal 1 Feb 1977, and Globe and Mail, 2 Feb. 1977.
Matthews had not been so cagey with Canadian colleagues, and gave to PACE
much important data. He had also offered his farm, strewn with
technological relics of his work with Tesla, to the Canadian government as
a research station and museum. Although strongly advocated by Michrowski
in a 17 February 1977 letter to the Privy Council?s economic adviser Dr.
Ian A. Stewart, unfortunately in a letter to A.H. Matthews dated 7 May
1977, C.W. Carter makes it clear that this museum proposal was not
implemented. (Archive 3/12)
24. Letter from LCol M.V. Cromie to Capt. Claude Laporte, 17 November
1978. (PACE file copy)
25. Dmitry S. Strebkov, Stanislav V. Avramenko, Aleksei I. Nekarasov,
"New Technology of Electric Power Transmission". The Planetary
Association for Clean Energy, Inc., 2001. ISBN 0-919969-13-5