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http://pesn.com/2006/03/08/9600242_Spheromak_Plasma_Toroid/
You are here:
PureEnergySystems.com > News > March 8, 2006

Top 100
Colliding Plasma Toroid Clean-Energy Breakthrough

Modified high-density plasma toroids will be collided to produce both electricity and heat for homes, and to power road vehicles and aircraft. How sustainable is this process environmentally?

    "The discovery of a new plasma toroid is a very significant discovery in plasma physics, and plasma scientists will be enormously excited about it."

-- Clint Seward (March 8, 2006)
Inventor and CEO of Electron Power Systems, Inc

by Mary-Sue Haliburton
Pure Energy Systems News
Copyright © 2006


Fig. 1 Schematic of neutron tube
An ion source produces hydrogen ions (deuterium), which are accelerated to 110 kV, then directed to hit a hydrogen target (also deuterium), which produces neutrons, and also heat as a waste product.

Source: "Compact Accelerator Neutron Generators," by David L. Chichester and Jim Simpson, The Industrial Physicist, December 2003/Janaury 2004. American Institute of Physics. With permission.
ACTON, MASSACHUSETTS, USA -- Imagine being able to fly in an aircraft that is safe from explosions and fuel fires. Imagine being able to heat your home and to generate electricity for your own use, with about five percent of the fuel input it now takes just to get warm. Best of all, no carbon dioxide will be released. None.

It sounds as if this is going to be possible in only a few years according to Electron Power Systems, Inc. (EPS).

EPS has discovered a new, high-density plasma toroid that remains stable in atmosphere with no need for external magnetic field confinement. MIT scientists have independently confirmed the plasma toroid discovery and have co-patented it.

EPS Inc. is pursuing the next step of building a device based on this discovery, capable of consistently colliding two of these high density plasma toroids to produce clean energy without any atmospheric emissions. Based on early calculations, the company projects that this breakthrough neutron-tube technology has the potential to reduce the fuel input for energy generation compared to fossil-fuel power plants by a staggering twenty to one ratio. (Ref 1.) The cost savings will be significant, and could be even greater than 20:1 if the price of oil continues to rise, and as long as the alternate inputs continue to be available at competitive prices.

By using their high-density Electron Spiral Toroid (EST) Spheromak, which remains stable for hundreds of milliseconds, EPS expects to improve the already-existing neutron-tube technology. Once the working prototypes can be built, in two years if funding allows, the company foresees two main directions of development for this technology.

One, still using deuterium with its neutron and gamma emissions, will provide new capabilities for security and military uses. Enhanced explosives detection will be possible within a short time frame, and steerable beam weapons could also be based on this spheromak . Another main direction for development, using the same external structure but with a modified fuel process not emitting radiation or neutrons, is being planned for the home consumer market. The time frame is a bit longer; four or five years is an optimistic estimate for these products to appear. Already on the drawing board are car engines and household co-generation.


Interim Stage: the High-Energy “Neutron Tube” Technology

The central basis for this futuristic energy concept is the high-density EST Spheromak, which was patented by MIT scientists and Clint Seward of EPS. (Ref. 2) This high-energy EST-spheromak neutron tube will produce a much larger number of collisions – and energy – than previously possible with earlier neutron tubes. The EPS design calls for the production of stable ESTs in a shallower vacuum at each end of the tube and colliding them to maximize neutron output. The high-output neutron tube is potentially a heat source suitable for generating electricity.

Because the EST has been shown to be stable without the need for powerful magnetic confinement, the cost of building these units is expected to be much lower than most fusion devices studied to date. As discoverer Clint Seward explains: “We routinely confine the plasma toroids with very low pressures of 1/1000 atmosphere. This is possible because of the self-organized nature of the plasma toroids which minimizes the plasma forces. An important part of the plasma toroid is the internal magnetic field that causes the self-organization and the stability.”

Because charged particles hold to defined patterns in relation to each other, pressure within the self-organized plasma is inherently low. Held by interacting forces in fixed positions, electrons form their own shell or layer. Similarly, the ions form patterns in a separate shell. Both layers have a matrix-like formation. (Ref. 3)


A Well-Known Technology’s Evolution


In the 1970s under a University of Miami project, Daniel R. Wells collided two D/T (deuterium-Tritium) plasma toroids. (Ref. 4) These adhered without coalescing, although the surfaces interpenetrated causing ions to fuse. However, the low density and short duration (only 35 microseconds) limited the energy output that it was possible to obtain from colliding that type of toroid.

Subsequently, during a recent STTR joint project with MIT, EPS demonstrated in their laboratory an accelerated EST Spheromak. This was done with a well-established magnetic-coil accelerator technology, now in wide use, which can be scaled up for adding energy needed for this neutron-tube process.

The innovative EST Spheromak is expected to overcome former limitations by producing ion density calculated to be 2500 times greater than Wells was able to achieve. Being a function of density squared, fusion results from the EPS process should be significantly improved as compared to the TRISOPS project. (Ref. 5)

As inventor Clint Seward explains, “Today's neutron tubes collide heavy hydrogen ions (Deuterium ions, or D) to produce a neutron and energy and a helium ion. … Because the hydrogen ion beam has low density, EPS plans to replace it with a high-density hydrogen ion plasma toroid, and collide it with a second high density H ion plasma toroid.” As both are Deuterium based, this may be called the D/D process.”

And their ambitions go beyond that. By replacing the low-density deuterium ion beam, a source of neutrons, with normal hydrogen (protium) and boron-11, EPS plans to make the “neutron-tube” (Ref. 6) technology safe for consumers while still releasing energy from a “nuclear” source.


Initial Application: Larger-Scale Explosives Detection


As a company, EPS’s first stage of development will be to use the D/D process to produce a higher output of energy and neutrons than previously possible from neutron tubes. Since explosives detection is in urgent and high demand, and because it needs a relatively low level of neutrons (higher than the older type of neutron tubes, but lower than energy applications), the first commercialization of the EST Spheromak will be explosives detection.

Already in use are thousands of low-density neutron tubes of the earlier design. This is a proven technology which safely collides hydrogen ions to produce low-level neutrons for use in medical testing and industrial process control.

Neutrons from existing technology are already being used to detect explosives hidden in small luggage. But the higher neutron output from an EST Spheromak neutron tube will be able to detect explosives concealed in a larger mass, such as in vehicles and even in shipping containers. By speeding up border checks and customs procedures, the EPS technology should greatly benefit both security and international trade.

Demand from security services for this technology is expected to fund the development of yet higher-output EST-spheromak designs capable of generating electricity.


Anti-Missile Defense Applications


Besides security monitoring, there’s another potential source of development funding: Defense. The fact that the technology can generate a powerful beam has already suggested a direct military application.

Clint Seward says that his company’s EST Spheromaks will be revolutionary for the military:
“…reliable generation and acceleration of these plasmas using compact mobile machinery could provide US forces with a unique generic defense against ballistic and cruise missiles, manned and unmanned aircraft, and kinetic-energy projectiles of all sizes, velocities and compositions."

In the Technology Review of Electron Power Systems, written by an independent consulting group for the Office of the Secretary of Defense in July 2004, is a report titled “Electron spiral toroids (EST) as kinetic-energy weapons (KEWs).” This article states that these novel plasmas are “unusual in that they remain stable in partial atmospheres without requiring external magnetic fields for their containment, yet can also be accelerated in a directed fashion to potentially very high velocities (e.g., 600 km/sec) and kinetic energies.”

The same report mentions that the EST Spheromak concept is much more compact, manageable and directly useful to the military than high-vacuum-dependent plasmas being studied at DOE’s Lawrence Livermore Laboratories. In housings several meters long, with bulky magnetic field generators of the type used for Tokamak reactors to contain the reaction by means of electromagnetic pressure, the resultant 0.5 to 1.0 meter plasmas must be reduced in diameter to be useful.

The KEW report contrasts the vacuum plasmas with the microscopic-scale EST Spheromak beam, which has enough kinetic energy “to destroy any military vehicle or projectile operating in the atmosphere, including solid-rod anti-armor penetrators. These charge-neutral plasmas would be produced in large numbers in rapid succession to form a steerable beam.”

"Based on their reading of MIT's extrapolation from AFRL's compact-toroid acceleration experiments for vacuum plasmas, impact velocities of 600 km/sec, possibly several times higher, may be possible.” (Ref. 7) Thus it appears that the science-fiction battles with particle-beam weapons are closer to becoming reality.

Space travel is also projected as being possible using the EPS spheromak neutron tube. However, planetside applications should be developed first, to ensure a stable environment from which to launch exploration of the solar system and possibly beyond. (Ref. 8)

Though warfare scenarios are unpleasant to contemplate, the peaceful electrical generation, home-heating, and transportation uses do depend on the successful defense of the nation’s airspace and borders.


Electricity Generation


The second stage of EPS’s corporate development stems from research using the D/D (deuterium) process to develop useful energy output levels for commercial-scale electrical power production. Due to the risks associated with neutrons, sales of technology based on the D/D process are expected to be limited to electrical utilities and military customers. The requirement for shielding to block ionizing radiation would make them too expensive and risky for home installations.

According to theoretical models the technology can be scaled up, though not indefinitely; ion stability may not be possible at the very high energy levels required above one meter in size. (Ref. 9) Seward says, “The size of the plasma toroid is not as important as how fast they can be produced. We observe them as produced at up to 200 per second. We calculate that we can obtain one megajoule per collision.” (Ref. 10) To achiever greater energy output past that point, multiple units could be housed together to boost output to the level required for a large hospital or apartment block, a subdivision, or a larger community. Even with the required shielding, a deuterium-based EST Spheromak 100kW generating station would be only one-third the size of fossil-fuel electrical generators of the same output. If many local clean-energy stations were established using the neutron tube technology, losses from transmission lines would be reduced, while stability of the local supply would be enhanced.


Home Co-generation

A third priority for the EPS company is achieving home heating and production of electricity for the household. This means redesigning the former “neutron-tube” – a name that’s no longer applicable once neutrons are eliminated – as a device that can legitimately boast the name “Clean-Energy Tube™”. This will employ the PB11 (protium and boron-11) as the preferred fuel for civilian and consumer applications.

Clint Seward definitively clears up any confusion over naming the housing for the reaction as opposed to the EST spheromak events that occur within it. He describes a spheromak as the toroidal configuration of the plasma. It is not the structure in which it resides, which need not be spherical – as evinced by its current tubular shape – nor made by the same process. “The D version plasma toroid is a spheromak, the B version plasma toroid is a spheromak, and the P version plasma toroid is a spheromak, the difference being the kind of ions each has. (Note: B=boron, P=proton, D=deuterium).” (Ref. 11)

In his book on spheromaks, P.M. Bellan writes that the question often arises as to whether a spheromak is a device or a plasma configuration. He defines the “spheromak” as the plasma toroid configuration itself since there is no single way to produce them and hence no “spheromak generator,” unlike a tokomak for example. (Ref. 12) Seward emphasizes, “the spheromak is the plasma ring, and not necessarily the device.” He states that the definitions written by scientists from Cal Tech, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories are the most accurate.” (Ref. 13)

This C-E Tube will use the hydrogen/boron process, producing energetic helium ions that will enable electricity to be produced directly without either neutrons or radioactivity. (A valuable gas, this helium could be collected from generators for re-sale.) Direct electricity eliminates the need for heat-to-electric generation systems, avoiding losses of energy that occur due to real-world inefficiency of trying to implement the idealized Carnot Cycle. The Carnot heat cycle has to assume perfect thermal shielding and no loss of energy – which is considered impossible due to Entropy.

The alternative process collides boron-11 (B) with protons (P) – protons are hydrogen ions – to produce three helium ions, but no neutrons, and hence no radioactivity. Although more difficult to implement, the hydrogen-boron process also offers a higher efficiency level from its collisions. Thus the EST Spheromak B/P device is expected to be very effective and competitive when made in compact sizes for home heating

EPS has been working on concept designs for home co-generators that can produce both heat and electricity, and Seward hopes this will be the first product put onto the market for the general public. The EST spheromak is small, about 1 centimeter. Based on calculations done by EPS, one spheromak will produce up to one mega-joule of energy. If electricity can be produced right in the home, typical energy losses in the transmission wires of approximately 15% could be avoided.

The low cost of operating a PB11 spheromak as an electric generator (currently estimated as a 20:1 saving) is based on fossil-fuel prices as of this year. If oil prices continue to rise as predicted, the savings differential may become even greater. This would more rapidly make up for the rather steep capital outlay involved to install a home heating system priced at USD $12,000. (Ref. 14) However, using a relatively rare element as part of a fuel-input system could cause the price of boron to rise, and calculations of cost saving which are based on its current low price may have to be revised somewhat in the future.


Transportation

The transportation sector is the next major priority after home heating. The efficiency of an internal-combustion engine is limited by the amount of energy inherently contained in a given type of fuel, as well as by the practical limitations on the Carnot cycle to about 30% of the possible energy of 1.184 watt-hours (wh) per kilogram. A D/D pair of ESTs has about 2.0E10 wh/kg, or 2.6E6 times the energy of gasoline. By these calculations, then, one kg of EST Spheromak fuel may provide usable energy equivalent in output to 2,600,000 kgs of gasoline. (Ref. 15)

Expected to be comparable to the prices of traditional internal-combustion cars, the initial cost of the C-E Tube vehicle is similarly expected to be made up quickly in dramatic fuel savings. Again using current prices, the average fuel cost of $2000 per year would drop to only about $100 per year when replacing gasoline with boron and hydrogen as fuel. (The price of oil may continue to go up, increasing this advantage, but only as long as the price of boron does not escalate at a greater rate.) Even so, a supply system to sell fuel inputs for C-E Tube vehicles will be required. Along with their developing of the “hydrogen highway” supply system, Seward recommends that existing energy companies consider taking up this alternate business opportunity to compensate for reduced sales of gasoline in the future.

Although road vehicles would be an early focus of EPS Inc., aeronautics would not be far behind. There would be an even greater transportation efficiency gain for an aircraft that does not have to carry tons of fuel. Concerns about lingering jet-exhaust “clouds” affecting climate, and the trend toward making larger and larger aircraft to carry more passengers have compelled the inclusion of bigger and bigger fuel tanks. Fifty percent of the weight at takeoff is fuel. Consequently, emissions into the atmosphere are increasing.

Therefore, Seward thinks that the C-E Tube power system for air transportation should be an even higher priority as a first application of the later-stage EST spheromak technology than road vehicles. While plenty of designers are working on hybrid cars, no one is building hybrid airplanes. As Seward points out, the batteries would have to be too heavy to make this feasible. (Ref. 16)

The entire C-E Tube flying machine could be much smaller and lighter and still transport the same number of people. A fuel mass reduction of 250,000 to one is a very significant reduction in the weight that must be lifted and propelled forward. Since most of the injuries and loss of life associated with crashes of traditional aircraft is due to their having large tanks of explosive fuel on board, an airplane powered with a C-E Tube should achieve a greater safety record than the internal-combustion plane. Without big tanks of combustible fuel, this C-E aircraft could never be used as a “flying bomb”. Passengers seeking peace of mind in flight would naturally choose to ride in the safer air vehicle.

Since exposure to radiation would be less of a concern in cargo planes, it may even be possible to move ahead with a D/D neutron tube for that part of the air transportation sector, especially for computer-guided drone cargo craft. The reduction in quantity of fuel to five percent of current consumption will more than compensate for the added weight of radiation shielding. Cost savings passed on in lower air freight rates would be attractive to vendors who need this business service.


Environment and Health

Ken Rauen, science adviser to PES, zeroes in on the fact that a neutron generator bombards deuterium into a solid metal-deuterium-hydride target to release fast neutrons.

“ Being a serious radiation hazard, it is surprising the white paper does not address this at all. Are the neutrons absorbed or are they just decayed with their very short half-life? Neutrons are thermodynamically unstable and are kinetically unstable when free; they release energy when they decay to a proton, electron, and antineutrino.” Rauen wondered whether this meant that a neutrino was absorbed instead of antineutrino released.

“ Anyway, this is a neat idea for a simple nuclear reaction. Let's see if they can make the process intrinsically safe. “ (Ref. 17)

To this, Seward replies: “Ken Rauen raises a good point as to how this process can be non-radioactive since it produces neutrons. The plan is to substitute the boron proton process prior to commercialization.” Changing the name for the new process, as is now in effect, helps avoid any misplaced concerns.

A colliding boron/hydrogen process is known to produce energy without neutrons or radioactivity. Achieving this in the proposed C-E Tube would indeed represent an environmentally-clean energy technology beyond the deuterium-based one currently being used in the EPS experiments. However, this remains theoretical until an actual working model can be demonstrated. Even with adequate and timely funding, this could take several more years.

The researchers are working in laboratories with these devices, and presumably would have first-hand experience of any side-effects from proximity. The commercialization of neutron-tube technology for larger electrical generating stations will have to include appropriate shielding for radioactivity. But the PB11 Clean-Energy Tube for homes and for air and ground transportation would not require this type of shielding.


Pollution Risk

Since Seward utilizes an electric arc to produce the plasma toroids, his invention avoids microwaves which are commonly used in neutron tubes to create plasmas. Thus the non-radioactive and non-microwave C-E Tube would be safer on both counts, and avoid at least one of the EMF-safety concerns about a new and unknown system. (Ref. 18) Since the C-E Tube vehicle prototype has yet to be built, we will have to await its arrival in order to scan it with a tri-field meter and make an assessment then. Meanwhile, if any system other than combustion is powering the drive, electro-magnetic field will be present. Owners of all hybrid and electric vehicles who are concerned about EMF should consider finding ways to protect themselves from these fields. (Ref. 19)

Experimental and prototype testing will have to set the parameters for how the C-E Tube technology will stand up to vibration and random impacts which are both hazards of road travel, and whether spillage would represent any hazard. As a trace element, boron plays a nutrient role to strengthen bones, though its use in calcium supplements is restricted and still not approved in some countries due to concern about possible toxicity. In small quantities also, this element promotes vigorous growth of certain food crops such as broccoli; a deficiency of boron shows up in the brassica plant family as those brownish hollow gaps in the stems or roots. (Ref. 20)
Since high concentrations from an unintended spill of the boron fuel could be a problem, vendors planning a supply system will have to include containment or neutralization methods should such accidents be determined to present a risk. How far this may be toxic to humans is still in dispute, and since a car needs to carry only a small amount – a few ounces at most – of boron, Clint Seward considers that any predicted risk from a vehicular accident should be minimal. (Ref. 21)

However, for plants there is a narrow margin between boron as a micro-nutrient and toxic contamination. An article from the U.S. Department of Agriculture on forest management states: “the reason that excess lime causes [boron deficiency] is that aluminum hydroxide immobilizes boron rather than a simple high pH reaction.” (Ref. 22) Since liming the soil depletes boron, this simple procedure may offer a way to detoxify a boron spill.


Long-Term Boron Supply Doubtful

Recovery of any spilled boron may be a better option than just neutralizing toxicity. In addition to environmental costs involved in mining, some deposits have become exhausted. At the present rate of use, the higher-grade deposits may be used up in about forty years, according to one source. (Ref. 23) However, others disagree. Clint Seward cites G. Miley’s book Fusion Energy Conversion as predicting that there is enough boron for centuries of use. According to that apparently knowledgeable source, even if boron runs out, twenty-one other potential fusion processes could be developed to replace it.

As with any other element or mineral that is part of the natural chain of life processes, the world supply of boron is not infinite. And one of the highest-concentration deposits is in Turkey, which is in a region considered politically unstable. That nation’s government wants to manage the 60% of the world’s born for greater income and employment. But because the fuel borane is already needed for US military aircraft, the Turkish boron deposit has already been targeted by the IMF for “privatization” to transfer control – and profits – to a “Western” multinational company such as the London-based Rio Tinto mining conglomerate. (Ref. 20) Adding this new use for boron in spheromaks will make financial or military conflict to achieve such a takeover more likely.

Future prices of this element will go up as the supply declines, though it is difficult to predict when that may occur. As with oil, coal and other resources, a time may come when the cost of obtaining boron as fuel, such as from less accessible sites or in low-grade ore, makes it less attractive. Whether that is centuries away or decades away depends on which analyst has made the best calculations, as well as on how much boron consumption will rise with the adoption of the C-E Tube.

Eventually, the boron-hydrogen fuel process could end up competing with agricultural producers for a waning supply of what is for them an essential trace nutrient.


No free lunch


Every energy application has a cost for the environment. When contrasted to combustion-based energy, the benefits from the boron-based C-E Tube, of no emissions and greater efficiency, put this longer-term supply issue into perspective. Spreading out any negative effects over time is why it is beneficial to develop many different energy systems. Doing so helps to stave off the inevitable supply crunches so that the civilization is not dependent on any single type of technology.


EST Spheromak Minimizes Waste Heat

Reducing waste heat is another of the EPS company’s research objectives. “Heat is a particularly interesting discussion since our discovery will reduce waste heat from cars by about 70%,” says Seward, “thereby reducing global warming.”

While the D/D neutron tube will produce heat energy comparable to what all fossil fuel cycles produce, the C-E Tube will not. To move a car, with its attendant low efficiency of about 20%, heat from gasoline combustion has to be converted into power using a Carnot Cycle with its entropy losses. The remaining 80% of the energy not thus converted is the wasted heat. From a neutron tube, waste heat cannot be reduced by much. However, as a replacement for fossil fuels in electrical generating stations, an EST spheromak using the D/D process still comes out ahead by not producing CO2.

The picture would get brighter after the arrival of the C-E Tube based on the B/P process. Conversion of the spheromak tube to boron/hydrogen, Seward explains: “will provide a spectacular potential improvement in efficiency and reduction in waste heat.” Due to their high energy, helium ions move at high velocity. Seward’s calculations predict that by passing them through a pickup coil their energy can be converted directly to electricity at 90%+ efficiency. “This one improvement will significantly reduce waste heat from cars by about 70% and reduce waste heat we now pour into the earth’s ecosphere”, he states. (Ref. 24) The same can be said of a B/P home heating co-generation device.


Solidity of the Research

Though they had identified problem areas in the original EPS data, NASA did admit that the concept of “metastable” energetic plasma structures deserved further research with a view to using these effects for propulsion and electrical generation, as long as the work proceeded under strict peer review to achieve a sound theoretical model. (Ref. 25) After a stringent examination of this NASA analysis, and exchanges of views and data, the EPS team and MIT published new papers confirming their experimental results. (Ref. 26)

Having tightened up the theoretical underpinnings of their EST Spheromak, the researchers are now confident that they have resolved the issues. Therefore they are ready to go ahead on the engineering of a working proof-of-concept laboratory model to be built in the next two years, and are looking for funding.

Since MIT scientists are focusing on their DOE-funded Tokamak research, they are not currently involved in the EST Spheromak project as a partner. However, Seward looks forward to renewal of their expert participation once funding is raised to cover additional research expenses at the university level.


Funding


$2.0M in capital is needed to complete the initial milestones and a further $8M is required to complete additional ones. The $2M is earmarked for one senior technical person to complete lab work; funding of consultants; instrumentation in EPS labs and marketing.

Experimental-stage lab costs can run fairly high due to having to have experts on hand to analyze and tweak the physical setup on a continuous basis. On PhysOrg forum, Erich Knight posted in December 2004 a statement from Seward describing the stages involved. He remarked that cash outlay is required for each step: for creating each EST, for activating the collider to bring them together, for taking the measurements, and finally for the expert analysis of the results. It added up, to about a $5k investment for each EST capture. In those days, in order to further the research, Seward was even working with investments as small as $5000 to $10000 -- considered peanuts in the venture-capital field. (Ref. 27)

The $8M investment will be used to build the first high-output neutron-tube prototypes. This work is to be done by a qualified outside contractor chosen by the scientists.


The Company

Electron Power Systems, Inc. is a privately held corporation. It is currently operating as a research company, and applies for research contracts. There is a history of $6.0M received for the work already done to characterize the physics of the technology. To date four “angel” investors have invested a total of $384K. Although in the one-off experimental setting, each spheromak costs about $5k to create, though with increasing standardization of processes and structures, these unit costs should come down.

The researchers leading the EPS startup team all have a strong scientific background. As the company grows, no doubt qualified managers will be added as the need arises.

CEO Clint Seward, who discovered the technology, has designed its applications. Prior to founding EPS, he was a general manager in a high-tech company, and obtained experience in engineering management and marketing. Seward holds a Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering from University of Michigan, and a BS from West Point.

Chief Consulting Scientist Chiping Chen, Ph.D. has worked with EPS since 1993. It was Dr. Chen who determined that no other published data existed for a spheromak that remained stable in atmosphere, and devised equilibrium equations for it. With Missile Defense Organization funding, he was able to demonstrate this equilibrium, eventually also achieving the long-sought EST stability, as reported in published papers. Dr. Chen is a Principal Research Scientist, MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center.

VP of Engineering DeWitt (“DC”) Seward has worked with EPS in a consulting role since 1992 when funding permits. His background includes product engineer designing survey equipment for Trimble Navigation Inc. using the GPS technology. He is presently a product engineer in a wireless technology company. DC holds a Masters of Science in EE from MIT.

# # #

Company Website: ElectronPowerSystems.com

References

Ref. 1: Executive Summary from EPS, Inc.

Ref. 2: Electron Spiral Toroid; US Patent 5,773,919; June 30, 1998.

Ref 3: Email from Clint Seward to Sterling Allan, 23 Feb 2006

Ref 4: Documentation such as “Daniel R. Wells, Paul Edward Ziajka, and Jack L. Tunstall. Hydrodynamic confinement of thermonuclear plasmas TRISOPS VIII (plasma liner confinement). Fusion Tech., 9:83, 1986.” listed at: http://public.lanl.gov/cbarnes/bib/spheromak_biblio/node1.html

Ref 5, 7: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=359 

Ref 6 Due to confusion arising from using the same name for the radioactive and non-radioactive processes, in an email to Clint Seward, 26 February 2006, the author asked for a way to distinguish the two verbally. He said, “What I am fishing for is a different name for a tube in which a boron-hydrogen event occurs that doesn't need powerful electromagnetic confinement, so that I can write about these different devices being put into houses or cars without reference to dangers associated with neutrons.” I also suggested calling the non-radioacive version a “tubomak” by way of stimulating some brainstorming. Mr. Seward replied with his choice of name, the Clean-Energy Tube™.

Ref 7:  http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=359 

Ref 8: http://www.niac.usra.edu; click on studies 9801, click on final report, Seward.

Ref 9: “Theoretical Analysis of the Electron Spiral Toroid Concept: an Update” June, 2002. “The NASA report concludes that the EST cannot be scaled up to the extent that EPS claimed in its NIAC report [Seward 1999], and on this point EPS agrees. The NASA report correctly shows that the ion stability condition cannot be practically satisfied at that high level of energy. EPS agrees it overlooked the implications of the ion stability condition in that analysis.”

Ref 10: Email, C. Seward to author, 5 March 2006.

Ref 11: Email from C. Seward to author, 27 Feb 2006

Ref 12: “Spheromaks: A Practical Application of Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamos and Plasma Self-Organization” (Imperial College Press, London, 2000) quote cited by Seward appears on page 4.

Ref 13: http://www-ferp.ucsd.edu/../spher.html  As of the time of writing this article, the definition on Wikipedia still included this paragraph to which Seward had objections: "A Spheromak is a controlled fusion reactor design in which the fusion plasma is electromagnetically confined within a spherical electromagnetic field geometry. Deuterium plasma or deuterium/tritium plasma is injected into a spheromak. This places a small star like ball of fusion plasma inside of the spherical electromagnetic field, inside the spheromak. ... The core of a spheromak may be a hollow iron or steel sphere that is wrapped with up to 100,000 superconducting steel electromagnetic solenoid coils that are cooled by a liquid helium cooling jacket."

Ref 14: Executive Summary for Electron Power Systems Inc. (EPS)

Ref 15: EPS Document #051115 “A high-energy Neutron Tube for Explosives Detection and Clean Energy”

Ref 16: Email from C. Seward to author, 5 March 2006.

Ref 17: Email from "Ken Rauen" to NEC-TechRev@yahoogroups.com (private list)

Ref 18: Concerns about “electrosmog” especially microwaves are still officially dismissed. However, suppression of independent data is alleged, (http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1142664/) and reporting continues from unofficial sources, e.g.:
http://www.emfacts.com/weblog/?p=187, and http://tuberose.com/Microwave_Ovens.html,
while those observing and experiencing symptoms categorically reject industry claims of safety for microwave-based technologies, e.g.: http://www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/grn/omega107.htm, http://www.mercurypoisoned.com/..metals_and_microwaves.html, “anecdotal” report linking symptoms to technology; and http://www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/adverse_..._transmitter.html

Ref 19: One approach to protecting oneself is to apply a device to the electromagnetic-field source, e.g.: http://www.tachyon-energy-products.com/../prius-disks.htm, while another option is a portable or wearable device to lessen the effects on the body. (E.g.: engineer George T. F. Yao’s microcrystalline pulsor® devices (from www.essentia.ca, click on EMF protection links); or wearable radionically-enhanced clay tokens such as: http://www.emfbalance.ca/HatmonyToken.html.

Ref 20: http://www.turkishtime.org/nisan/60_en_1.htm

Ref 21: http://www.veseys.com/store.cfm?product=908  Re: Boron solubor 20%: A necessary trace element for the prevention of brown heart (water core) in turnips and rutabagas. Also beneficial for use on cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, carrots and onions. Apply as a foliar spray about 4-6 weeks after planting. 1 tbsp/gal of water for 150' row. 5-10 lbs/acre.

Ref 22:Forest Nursery Notes”, Summer 2001.

Ref 23: “SmartGuard Borate-Treated Wood Products Introduced Product Review - Environmental Building News September 2000 How Sustainable is Boron?”

Ref 24: Email from C. Seward to author, 27 Feb. 2006

Ref 25: NASA report “Theoretical Analysis of the Electron Spiral Toroid Concept” (NASA/CR-2000210654), December 2000.

Ref 26: Articles listed in June 2002 update.
1. Chen, C., Pakter, R., Seward, D. C. (2001). “Equilibrium and Stability Properties of Self-Organized Electron Spiral Toroids.” Physics of Plasmas. Vol. 8, No. 10, pp. 4441-4449. October 2001. *

2. Guss, William J., Chen, C. (2002). “Equilibrium of Self-Organized Electron Spiral Toroids.” Accepted for publication in Physics of Plasmas. Will publish August 2002. Available from EPS, Inc. on request.

3. Seward, C., Chen, C., Guss, W., Seward, DC. (2002) “Electron Spiral Toroid (EST) for Energy Storage.” Final report for DTRA contract no. DTRA01-99-C-0095.

4. Seward, C., Chen, C., Ware, K. (2001). “Ball Lightning Explained as a Stable Plasma Toroid.” PPPS-2001 Pulsed Power Plasma Science Conference. June 2001. *

Ref 27: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=359


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Page posted by Sterling D. Allan March 7, 2006
Last updated June 15, 2008

 

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