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You are here: > News > Oct. 13, 2005

Design to Improve Turbulence in Combustion Chambers by Creating a Vortex

Somender Singh says a radical design change to the face of combustion chambers by forming grooves, channels or passages through the squish areas will further enhance in-cylinder turbulence followed by multi flame front combustion.  Do-it-yourselfers might consider cutting some grooves in their chambers to approach the effect.

    "He claims that his invention makes an engine cleaner, quieter and colder than its internal-combustion cousins around the world—while using up to 20 percent less gas." -- (Popular Science; Sep 24, 2004)

    "[The idea is] to induce turbulence in combustion chambers [to] cause a 'Hurricane.' " -- Somender Singh (Oct. 13, 2005)

    "I wonder why the Oil Co's are so cold to combustion innovations! I have had no response from them!" -- Somender Singh (Oct. 14, 2005)

by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems News
Copyright © 2005

Somender Singh
Somender Singh holding combustion chamber head.

KARNATAKA, INDIA -- The internal combustion (IC) engine is not going away any time soon.  Improvements in IC designs, therefore, are a welcome addition to a world seeking for less consumption of fuel and cleaner emissions from the tail pipe.

Somender Singh has come up with a way to provide a faster, hence more efficient burn, with less loss of heat, through his design to improve turbulence in combustion chambers.  His patented work was been featured in the Sept. 24 2004 Popular Science magazine, and has been written about extensively on the net.

Singh says that internal combustion engines fired up by “Spark Ignition" or "Compression Ignition” harness only about 25-35% of the derived heat energy into useful work, while the remaining heat energy is invariably lost through heat absorption into the cylinder followed by exhaust gases expulsion.

While the major motor companies take their time to test and then implement this design (something they have been aware of for years), Sing's website provides tutorials for the do-it-yourselfer to cut grooves in their combustion chamber to accomplish the effect.

Singh says he has an answer for Engineers the world over who are trying to achieve quick combustion that delivers more power from the expanding hot gases while also preventing the least heat absorption into the systems.

He describes it this way.  During combustion, the cylinder volume is very small.  Heat losses into the piston head and cylinder head are unavoidable. In order to reduce the heat losses, the burn time needs to be as quick as possible. This can be achieved by high flame velocities, which are traditionally accomplished by increasing the laminar burning velocity, or by turbulence intensity, or both.

The highest laminar burning velocities are achieved by:
1) slightly richer mixtures of 13 : 1 and below or
2) squish promoting in-cylinder turbulence in the charge during combustion.

Ideal turbulent mixture formations prior to ignition greatly support quick light-ups, followed by accelerated combustion. Singh's US Patent 6237579 sets forth to achieve this by Accelerated Laminar Total Clean Burn Combustion.  It involves progressive turbulence in the charge as the piston pounds the head at top dead center. This form of combustion further achieves higher thermal efficiencies that deliver better Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC).

When Singh incorporated this design into the cylinder head of a test engine, he said the engine consumed between 10 and 20% less fuel, the exhaust was distinctly cooler, and the spark plug, when pulled out, was blue-hot. When Singh used one of these engines to power a car, he said was able to keep his car in fourth gear at 500 rpm without sputtering or pinging".  "It was zippier. And in third gear I could slow down to 20 kph with no engine knock, and just speed up smoothly, like you would in first gear". He said it was as though you didn't need a gear-box at all. Singh calls it the "Direct Drive Engine". (ref)

Results from a dynamometer test by the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) showed a reduction of 42.5% in BSFC / fuel consumption when fully loaded, producing more torque and power at lower temperatures.

click for enlargement

Full Throttle Performance results from ARAI (Download pdf)

A July 6, 2003 feature article in The Week, touted as India's leading news magazine, said,

    "The engine is noiseless and the power exhilarating. The wheel-spinning indicates that the car is tuned to race performance. It can go into top gear at speeds as low as 20 kilometres from where it moves to top speed in no time, even with the air conditioner on. There is no chugging or knocking. The fuel consumed is minimum, considering that the car can move in top gear through congested roads." (read article)

The Patent, awarded in May, 2001, describes a combustion chamber design layout of grooves or channels or passages formed in the squish band to further enhance turbulence in the charge prior to ignition as compared to existing designs with squish bands or hemispherical layouts in internal combustion engines. These grooves or channels or passages after ignition direct the flame front to cause multipoint ignition during the combustion cycle resulting in the following distinct advantages over existing designs in practice. First, quicker and complete clean burn combustion; second, lower operating temperatures due to the higher flame velocities; third, enhanced torque and power through the entire range resulting in better fuel economy with lower emissions; and fourth, smoother engine operation through the entire range, enhancing engine life.

We have created a publicly editable index page for Singh's work at PESWiki, where people can report the results of modifications they have made based on this information.

# # #

Patent Excerpt


These and further features of the present invention will be better understood by reading the following Detailed Description together with the Drawing.

FIG. 1 is a plan view of a two stroke combustion chamber layouts with grooves 1, channels 2 and passages 3;

FIG. 2 is an elevational cross section layout of two stroke combustion chamber with grooves, channels, passages and piston;

FIG. 3 is a plan view of a four stroke combustion chamber layout with channels 2 and passages 3; and

FIG. 4 is a plan view of a close up layout of grooves 1, channels 2 and passages 3 in the squish band.


The elements of the Figures comprise: 1--grooves; 2--channels; 3--passages; 4--squish band; 5--combustion chamber; 6--piston crown; 7--spark plug; 8--cylinder head; and 9--valves.

This particular invention works on the following principles Ref FIG. 1 & FIG. 2 into or onto the squish band 4 or squish area or flat surfaces of the combustion chamber 5, series of grooves 1 or channels 2 or passages 3 are formed either in the initial casting process or machined to specifications later. These grooves or channels or passages form the shortest path or passage from the spark plug 7 location to the ends of the combustion chamber through the squish band 4 or squish area or flat surfaces of the combustion chambers of I.C. Engines. These grooves or channels or passages squirt the air-fuel charge trapped between the piston crown and the squish band towards the center scoop of the combustion chamber on the upward stroke.

The effects of the grooves, channels and passages cause the air-fuel charge to be in a greater state of turbulence prior to ignition in the combustion chamber. When the spark plug 7 located normally in the center of the combustion chamber ignites the air-fuel charge, which presently is in a high state of turbulence the flame front engulfs the dense volatile charge present in the combustion chamber through these grooves or channels or passages and causes flame turbulence in the ends of the combustion chamber by the time the main flame front has reached the piston crown. This form of multipoint combustion causes total quick controlled combustion leaving no room for unburnt fuel or temperature increase to cause pinging or Detonation in the extreme ends of the combustion chamber. This unique form of multipoint flame front combustion exerts the maximum force of the expanding gases towards the piston crown delivering optimum torque through the entire range.

Referring to FIG. 4, the grooves 1 or channels 2 or passages 3 act two ways. They induce turbulence in the air-fuel charge by forcing the charge through these grooves or channels or passages towards the spark plug 7 preventing fuel separation and condensation taking place due to the compression applied and prevent stagnation of the charge prior to combustion as the reciprocating piston 6 comes to a momentary halt at TDC as shown in FIG. 2. When the turbulent dense volatile charge is ignited before TDC the flame front travels through these grooves 1 or channels 2 or passages 3 to the extreme corners of the combustion chamber causing a high degree of flame turbulence while the main flame front engulfs the main change leaving no form of unburnt fuel residue resulting in total controlled quick efficient clean burn combustion in two and four cycle engines. This unique design concept is applicable to all forms of two and four cycle combustion chamber designs in I.C. engines irrespective to the fuel in use. On diesel engines, the same principles are applicable on the piston crown which performs like a combustion chamber due to the small clearance volumes required to attain the ultra high compression ratios and diesel fuel being sprayed by the injectors located in the cylinder head. In principle, the design functions on varied flame velocities which actually cause the turbulence in the air-fuel mixture during combustion resulting in a quick and efficient combustion cycle compared to existing designs.

Thus, according to the method of according to the present invention, improved turbulence is provided in the air-fuel charge before ignition and greatly improving flame propagation after ignition in the combustion chambers of two and four cycle I.C. engines during the combustion cycle resulting in improved engine efficiency over existing designs. Moreover, no previous or existing combustion chamber has any resemblance or design incorporating grooves or channels or passages either formed or machined or drilled into the combustion chamber or squish band or squish area or wedged area or flat surfaces to induce turbulence in the air fuel charge prior to combustion on the upward stroke of the piston. No previous or existing combustion chamber has any design to induce turbulence other than squish bands. Furthermore, after ignition occurs the flame front engulfs the charge by simultaneously burning through the grooves or channels or passages reaching the far ends of the combustion chamber in the shortest possible time causing flame and gas turbulence while the main flame front burns through the bulk of the charge in the center scoop of the combustion chamber. No present day combustion chamber operates on these principles of multipoint combustion.

The multipoint ignition according to the present invention brings about flame turbulence which in turn intermingles and result in a combined total complete efficient combustion with no residue of unburnt fuel. Such turbulence and other advantages are provided by the unique physical layouts of the grooves or passages in combustion chamber according to the present invention, especially drawings FIG. 1, FIG. 2, FIG. 3 and FIG. 4.

The grooves 1, or channels 2, or passages 3 are either arranged in a pattern that radiate out of the cylinder axis like spokes in a hub of a wheel or in a pattern that radiate out of an offset angle to the center or straight from the nearest point to the spark plug extending to the ends of the combustion chamber through the squish band or squish area or flat areas 4. These grooves or channels or passages are either straight or angled or curved and have a depth or diameter proportional to the circumference of the combustion chamber in relation to the cylinder bore diameter and squish band or squish area. These grooves or channels or passages start from the extreme ends of the combustion chamber and taper out to a point closest to the plug. No past or present design of combustion chambers wither two stroke or four stroke have any features or resemblance or concept to inducing turbulence before and after ignition cause multipoint combustion. According to the present invention, these grooves or channels or passages impart a squirting and swirling motion in the air fuel charge to create vortices that induce a higher degree of turbulence in the charge prior to ignition than any previous or existing combustion chambers in practice. Moreover, these grooves or channels or passages, due to their location, cause multipoint ignition once ignited partly due to the shorter distances the flame front needs to travel and reach the extreme ends of the combustion chamber while the main bulk of the ignited charge located in the center scoop is thrusting forward towards the piston crown. In these critical milliseconds of the combustion cycle in existing engines the piston is progressively loosing speed to come to a momentary dead halt at TDC causing stagnation of charge before it starts to speed up in the downward stroke. No previous or present day combustion chambers have any method to induce multiple combustion and inter mingling of charge occurring at this critical location of the piston at TDC, resulting in controlled efficient combustion utilizing the entire air fuel charge to its maximum efficiency in the shortest possible time. Thus, according to the present invention, these grooves or channels or passages cause rapid progressive complete combustion in the shortest possible time resulting in lower build up of temperatures in the combustion chamber, piston crown, cylinder walls and spark plug. Lower temperatures cause lesser distortion of metal parts resulting in lesser "blowby" of burned gases past piston rings and valve seats and better retention of compression ratios through the entire range.

The lower combustion chambers temperature greatly reduce emissions of nitrous oxide, oil contamination and oil discoloring. Existing combustion chamber greatly fall short in controlling excessive temperature build ups resulting in pinging, detonation and auto-ignition.

Also, the varied flame velocities occurring after ignition due to the formation of grooves, channels or passages result in shorter flame front travel through the walls of the combustion chamber to the extreme ends in comparison to the main bulk of ignited flame front which needs to follow the profile or contours of the combustion chamber to reach the extreme ends. This form of multipoint combustion results in clean burn efficient combustion with maximum utilization of the trapped air fuel charge delivering improved economy, enhanced torque and far lower emissions of carbon monoxides and carbon through the entire range as compared to previous or existing combustion chamber design. This form of induced turbulence in combustion chambers greatly helps to retain air fuel mixture in an optimum state for combustion. Once ignited the varied flame velocities cause multipoint controlled clean burn combustion greatly reducing combustion vibrations resulting in super smooth engine operation through the entire range. No previous or existing combustion-chamber design is capable of achieving total controlled combustion with a single source of ignition achieving all the above listed inventive features.

Therefore, this unique concept of forming grooves or channels or passages in the squish area or flat areas of the combustion chamber induces turbulence and optimum multipoint flame propagation after ignition is applicable to all two and four cycle petrol or kerosene or liquid petroleum gas engines of any cylinder capacity achieving all the claims listed above with no adverse effects.

Furthermore, the same principles apply to piston crowns of Diesel engines resulting in lower emissions, smooth engine operation and improved engine efficiency through the entire operating range. Thus, this unique functions on varied flame velocities which actually cause the turbulence in the air-fuel mixture during combustion results in a quick and efficient combustion cycle compared to existing designs.

End of Patent Excerpt


How do I cut a Groove?

Taken from

Written by Somender Singh

Many people want to know how they can cut their own groove. Here are a few steps to the process.

1. Chose a engine design that has some form of squish or quench. Consider both the piston top and combustion chamber when deciding.
(e.g. dish pistons reduce the squish percentage considerably.)

2. Run a base line test with regular pump gas and production compression ratio, normally near 8.5 to 9:1?

3. Remove the heads and raise the compression ratio up to 10:1, milling the heads is the preferred method.

4. Cut one groove in each combustion chamber like the one in the pictures. So far the straight channel seems to work the best.
(if using a SBC, the grooves will measure near 1 cc volume)

5. Ensure a 0.070" piston to head clearance is maintained, measured at engine assembly. Most hot rodders are tempted to raise the compression by reducing the piston to head clearance down to 0.040" or less, resist the temptation.

6. Bolt the heads back on, leave the tune up alone, measure and report the improvements. Check and correct the tune up as needed and put it in a car (dyno's aren't much fun). You won't be dissatisfied.



Somender Singh <email >
phone: 91-821-2449018
631/A, Hyder Ali Road, Nazarbad, Mysore - 570010, Karnataka, India


From: Somender Singh
Sent: Thursday, October 13, 2005 3:36 AM
Subject: Re: EDIT: Design To Improve Turbulence In Combustion Chambers

Dear Sterling D. Allan,

Greetings From India ! Fantastic composition Sir, – It cannot get any better than this ! Rearranging the patent text gives the reader a better focus of what is happening inside combustion chambers – still better will be the many Professors, HOD’s & R & D Heads resisting the thought or dispelling the idea as rubbish ( Is this guy dreaming up all this?!). I only hope all these efforts from your side gets this concept ignited and the deserving attention from the whole wide world towards “ Hacking Heads “ & Making them better !

[...] The ARAI results will be the icing on the cake !

It is my sincere interest that we convey to the world – What’s has been derived out of common sense will go past any barrier & mental better millions of engines !
Meaning to say – To induce turbulence in combustion chambers will cause a “ Hurricane “ !

When are you attempting to hack your cylinder head ? Tell me which car do you use ! I will help you to make it better ! Remember the good old saying “ Charity begins at home “ ! Do let me know.

Once again Thank Q Sir, ! For the Boost !
Warm regards,
Somender Singh ( Most call me - sing ! )


Q. Why Use "Stone Age" Side-Valve Engine?

From: fuelsaving <tony {at}>
Sent: Friday, October 14, 2005 8:10 AM
Subject: Re: Somender Singh's turbulence invention

Yes, I actually had some discussions with Somender Singh about his idea 18 months ago. I think the Popular Science article sums it up pretty well - the basic idea of turbulence is certainly very extremely important, and his invention is a way of getting that turbulence, but all modern engines have plenty of it anyway. Improving the economy of a "stone age" side-valve engine running 6.5:1 CR is a bit of a no-brainer and certainly not proof of effectiveness on modern engines.
I hope he does get somewhere with Tata Motors - I could imagine this kind of modification being used to get another half-a-percent economy out of some new design, and if incorporated at the original design stage it would probably make economic sense. But a "breakthrough", good for 20% better economy on a modern engine? I very much doubt it.

A. To Provide Proof of Concept

Sent: Friday, October 14, 2005 10:43 AM
Subject: Re: Somender Singh's turbulence invention

Dear [Sterling] Allan,
I have interacted with many ??? - these guys are too lazy or just haven't gone past polishing the combustion chamber & blowing the dust off before assembly - Hacking heads with grooves or channels would be too much for them ? They would have sleepless nights of induced cracks breaking cylinder heads into two or blown head gaskets when they least expect it ........ On the other hand - We have people like Mr. Randy Naquin - finding all my claims that I have spoken about. In fact it is his creative work on V8s - the displayed cylinder heads which are featured on your site. He even has a machine to do it in mass scale.
Let me tell you why I picked obsolete side valve engines and spent over $3000 testing them in India's premier facilities. Sir Harry Recardo is the Inventor and originator of generating turbulence with the help of squish bands - In his day he called it " Quench " - Many Americans still refer to Squish areas as Quench - due to lower operating temperatures created out of shadowed areas between the two halves of the combustion chamber coming very close to each other at TDC - thereby displacing the trapped mixture towards the main combustion area. This form of turbulence is referred to as - Mean Squish Velocities - MSV - 
I undertook to carry out modifications on a side valve Briggs and Stratton engine - as side valves display the largest squish areas in comparison to over head valve OHV designs - This exercise was to prove to the scientific community - how one single design change to such old obsolete engines could transform them to its present degree - the other exercise was to prove to B & S - the world's largest air cooled engine manufacturer - that they could still improve upon their sales and mint money out of the good old work horse. My personal victory was to have gone past age old squish concepts and bands and having taken my progressive turbulence enhancing design one step closer to achieving more complete combustion - as squish bands or quench areas often hold pockets of unburned or half burned air fuel mixtures - both petrol and diesel engines undergo the same set backs of retaining emissions.
The grooves add a new dimension to squish bands - meaning to say they bring down mean squish velocities due to the leaks caused by the grooves and promote progressive turbulence as the piston pounds the head - followed by multiple flame front spikes that burn the mixture trapped in the shadowed areas better - The best example would be the ARAI results. Combustion chamber designs and what happens inside has always come close to ' Black Art ' - Most claiming to know of it - but in reality - very few changes have evolved and revolved around the age old squish and quench concepts. Some think nothing much happens in the closing parts of the piston coming to TDC - while piston speed drop to zero ! 
If you do have any questions feel free to communicate with Mr. Randy Naquin by e-mail - get his phone no. and give him a call - he will tell you what is happening to modern V8s in America - Infact good old side valve Hudsons of the 40s are behaving better than OHVs of the next era - I will give you all their contacts.
Sorry i made it too long - but i needed to give the world a clear prospective of why i started from where Sir Harry Ricardo left the side valve L - heads ! Soon it will be the turn of overhead valves  - 2, 3, 4 & 5 valve layouts - No problem even the smallest squish area with the groove or a channel or a passage in place will bring about the change !
Lets see what these theoretical skeptics have to say.
Warm regards,
sing !!!

See also

Page composed by Sterling D. Allan Sept. 22, 2005
Last updated December 24, 2014





"It is harder to crack a prejudice than an atom." // "I'd rather be an optimist and a fool than a pessimist and right." -- Albert Einstein

ADVISORY: With any technology, you take a high risk to invest significant time or money unless (1) independent testing has thoroughly corroborated the technology, (2) the group involved has intellectual rights to the technology, and (3) the group has the ability to make a success of the endeavor.
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   Third, it is accepted as self-evident.

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