J.L. Naudin Claims to Extract Free Energy Using Moller's Atomic Hydrogen
Experimenter claims to derive free energy cleanly and safely from the
dissociation and association of hydrogen atoms. Data posted from several
tests. Plans, schematics, methods all listed openly to encourage
replication and improvement of results. Based on decades-old concepts set
forth by Nobel laureate.
D. Allan and Adrian
Pure Energy Systems News
Copyright © 2005
(click images for
MAHG v2.0 by JL Naudin
June, 2005 experimental set-up
May, 2005 experimental set-up
FRANCE -- French independent researcher Jean-Louis
Naudin reported Friday that he ran his experimental "Moller/Frolov Atomic
Hydrogen Generator" (MAGH) version 2.0 for one hour at an efficiency of
526% -- that's 5.26 times more energy out than he put in.
The day before, using slightly different settings, he reported having achieved
an efficiency of 682% for twenty minutes. On June 2, he reports to have
run this generator for two hours at an efficiency of 243%.
This is the first known replication and collaboration of the work done by
Nicholas Moller in conjunction with Alexander V. Frolov of Faraday Lab Ltd. of
St. Petersburg, Russia in January 2003. (ref)
Naudin used two completely different types of measurement equipment in his
According to Naudin's site, this several-fold excess energy is being derived
somehow in the process of molecular hydrogen dissociating into atomic hydrogen,
and then re-associating into H2. Free energy is derived, and
hydrogen is neither lost nor gained. It is a closed system in terms of
"The Atomic Hydrogen Process is 100% clean and safe," says Naudin on
Once realized into a commercial product, such a generator would provide the
consumer with a device that would supply energy for free, minus the expense of
the device itself, and any maintenance it might require -- similar to other free
energy sources such as solar or wind energy. The development is still too
young to be able to ascribe a cents-per-kilowatt-hour estimate. The hope
would be that it will be less expensive than any energy technology available
(click images for
MAHG reaction chamber with tungsten filament
MAHG system schematic
In simplistic terms, the MAHG is comprised of a cylinder that has an input
and output channel for water flow around a closed inner chamber filled with
hydrogen at 0.1 atmospheres pressure. A 0.25 mm diameter tungsten filament
at the heart of the device serves as the cathode, where the Hydrogen reacts to
switch between monatomic and diatomic states. Again, the hydrogen is not
consumed in the process of alternating between monatomic H and H2.
Extreme heat is given off as the H atoms recombine to H2. The water
cools the vacuum tube containing hydrogen at 0.1 atmospheres.
The heated water is where the excess energy manifests. The difficulty will
be in efficiently converting that nominal heat into usable energy. We
speculate that a stirling-accoustic engine might be the best mechanism for
efficiently converting that heat to mechanical energy. (See feedback
section below, as well as expired LANL patent [ref],
and newer thermo-acoustic work at LANL [ref])
The key is found in the frequency characteristics by which the positive anode
and negative cathode are pulsed, to effect a low-energy separation of the H2
into H. The anode/cathode voltage gradients range between 200 and 300 Volts.
AC-driven pulses do not work. The pulses have to be DC, in the range of 10
megahertz. (See clarifications in
feedback below.) The shape of the pulses is important as well.
The recent improvement in efficiency that Naudin saw, came from changing from a
power-supply-driven voltage pulse, to a battery-driven pulse. Naudin
replaced the power supply by a high power battery connected through a high power
MosFet Switcher. The Switcher is driven by a 10 MHz pulse generator. Apparently,
the battery characteristics provide a better input reservoir. By using the
battery, Naudin was better able to focus the pulse and gain better results. This
is like using a sharp knife instead of a dull one to dice vegetables. The shape
and length of time for the pulse might be the most important part of the
Self-run Capability? Not Yet
Jones Beene, an observer of the Naudin results, commented that until someone is
able to make such a device as this self-run, with energy left over to use, the
mainstream scientific community will remain aloof and unsinterested.
Historically, there are too many ways that effects such as this can be manifest,
that have nothing to do with free energy.
Naudin responded, "If I am able to greatly overcome the poor efficiency of
the Carnot cycle at high power and for a long time, with the use of a
high-efficiency TEG (Thermo Electric Generator), it seems possible to build up a
closed-loop device. This is a long way off; a lot of work is required."
Beene has numerous ideas of his own about the MAHG, both about how to improve
the design as well as the theory behind its operation, and the political
ramifications of open sourcing. He expects that a self-runner could appear
quite soon, and then the scenery would change rapidly.
Open Source Project
Naudin reports additional experimental results on his website, along with photos
of his apparatus, descriptions of his protocol, schematics and diagrams of his
set-up, and copies of the data he has obtained during his experimental runs. He
provides a history of the technology as well as an essay describing the
principles and theories that underlie the technology. The information is clearly
intended to be adequate for anyone who wishes to construct the device and try to
replicate the results, or join in the quest to improve upon them.
"The results are stable and fully reproducible," said Naudin on his
site. He describes the MAHG as one of the best devices that he has tested to
date, a very good candidate for producing a clean and independent energy for
the benefit of all."
This technology is nearly 70 years old, and is not likely to be patentable. (A
patent was obtained by Frolov in Russia, but a source that request to remain
anonymous states that it is probably not valid). It appears to be a
feasible candidate for the "open source" model of development by
interested scientists worldwide.
Nicholas Moller, one of two individuals after whom this particular variant (2.0)
device is named, said, "The time has come for removing the responsibility
of defining the energy policies and structures of the future from the hands of
the established energy industries, and place it in the hands of men of science
who will work for the preservation of the environment that sustains all life on
Earth." (Quote found on Naudin's site.)
That does not mean, however, that there will not be contentious attempts to
claim and patent the technology and its various nuances. Beene points out
the problem of "claim jumpers" in some other countries such as Japan,
Korea, and Taiwan; where the "first-to-file" rule trumps
"first-to-publish." It will take a magnanimous spirit by many to
see some staking their claims on this technology while others are freely sharing
their ideas. In some countries, including the U.S., the rule is
"first to publish," so open disclosures on the Internet will preclude
the patenting of the idea by others, ensuring that the technology stays in the
open domain in those countries. Beene further points out that Governments
in China, Pakistan, and the Arab world might seek to obtain international
patents, even on some small technical issue, like a more correct theory or a
minor detail of operation; thus limiting or delaying the commercial
implementation by others.
"Perhaps, since Moller himself has no problem with this open approach, then
no one else should care either. After all, he is the one who is giving up
the most," said Beene.
The rush to derive a clear theory behind how the technology works is also likely
to be animated.
Beene, who has a "bare proton" Dirac hypothesis about how this
technology works, points out that Randall Mills might seek to claim that this is
a hydrino device, while advocates of the low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) will
claim that this is more akin to cold fusion. "The Langmuir explanation,
being the one on which the device was built, is likely to be seen by most as
being operative," says Beene, "but there could be others."
All things considered, Beene concludes, "Yes, let's create something unique
in all of free-enterprise -- the completely open project which benefits the poor
as well as the wealthy -- but also, let's not be naive enough to think that
other forces are not at work to try to keep that from happening."
It may, therefore, be worthwhile to consider the example of Tim Berners-Lee,
inventor of and copyright holder on the World Wide Web. He uses his copyright as
a means to fend off attempts to introduce proprietary programs, and to keep the
web both free and universal, which are both part of the definition. So, after
this example, this publication and others can be used to establish the anteriority
of the concept, and such a copyright may provide at least some leverage to keep
the MAHG universal and "free".
Nobel Laureate Irving Langmuir's Discovery
Naudin states that Moller/Frolov's Atomic Hydrogen Generator is based on a
discovery by Irving Langmuir (1881-1957
b. Brooklyn, N.Y).
Langmuir won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1932. His work on filaments
in gases led to the discovery of the vacuum tube, gas-filled incandescent light
bulbs (the life of tungsten-filament light bulbs would be lengthened by filling
the vacuum with inert gas such as Argon), atomic hydrogen, and the atomic
hydrogen welding process.
Langmuir's doctoral thesis in 1906 at the University of Gottingen in Germany was
entitled "On the Partial Recombination of Dissociated Gases During
Cooling". In 1926, he invented the atomic hydrogen blowpipe in which
hydrogen gas is sent through a small hole through by means of an electric arc
formed by two tungsten rods, reaching temperatures of 3700 degrees Kelvin (K).
Hydrogen (H2) yields two ("monatomic") atoms of hydrogen,
absorbing 422 kilojoules in the process. The atoms of hydrogen then quickly
recombine into the more stable molecular form giving off extreme heat. The
hydrogen is therefore thought to be a transport mechanism to extract energy from
the arc plasma and to transfer it to a work surface.
Langmuir showed in 1912 that hydrogen at low pressure in contact with a tungsten
wire heated by an electric current is dissociated into atoms and is accompanied
by a large absorption of heat (100kcal per gram molecule). He used electric
currents of 20 amperes and voltages from 300 to 800 volts.
In the MAHG (Moller's Atomic Hydrogen Generator), as demonstrated by Naudin,
hydrogen changes between the diatomic and monatomic states without being used
up. In this process, hydrogen appears to be acting as a vacuum energy pump
because an excess of heat results from more energy being released during the
diatomic part of the cycle than from the dividing of the diatomic hydrogen
molecules into monotomic hydrogen. Mr. Naudin's results show that the difference
between output and input may reach a ratio higher than 10 to 1.
What is the mechanism for this excess energy production, and precisely what is
occurring in the plasma? In other words, why is this cycle acting as a
vacuum-energy heat pump? We know that the MAHG works most efficiently with
pulsed DC energy; it has no positive results with AC. The direct-current pulses
must play a part in causing the H2 molecules to break apart with less
energy than when the individual atoms recombine. Why? The effect of the DC pulse
on weakening the bonds must make the difference. A pulse can be controlled as to
its voltage, current and duration.
The recombination of the single hydrogen atoms into H2 molecules, on
the other hand, is a natural event which, to some degree under given conditions,
provides the same amount of output energy.
all is not so simple, as temperature is another factor affecting the efficiency.
Mr. Naudin has shown that the efficiency of the energy pump is greatly increased
as the temperature of the hydrogen increases. His chart (voltage vs current)
shows that the resistance of the tungsten filament is not linear.
click for enlarged view
Irving Langmuir's 1926 chart shows that at 8,000Ί K, well above the melting
point of tungsten, the amount of hydrogen dissociated reaches a maximum of
99.9%. Remember that Irving Langmuir was not subjecting the diatomic hydrogen
molecules to voltage pulses.
click for enlarged view
curve above shows how the percentage of molecular hydrogen dissociated into
atomic hydrogen is related to the temperature of the tungsten. These data were
published by Irving Langmuir in March 1926.
following experimental curve from Naudin, enhanced by the warm to cool
background hues, shows the MAHG filament (the cathode) temperature in relation
to time during the tests.
for enlarged view
You may notice that atomic hydrogen (1% to 7%) has been produced during only
25 of each 100 ms. Mr. Naudin's filament (cathode) temperature and time graph,
based on data recorded in May 2005, shows that a minimum of 2,000Ί
K must be attained before the hydrogen dissociation process begins. At
the peak temperature of just below 3,000Ί
K, there is a 7% dissociation of the diatomic hydrogen molecule into its
click for enlarged view
|Above: The Power I/O Vs the Voltage,
the red curve shows the POWER OUTPUT
and the blue curve shows the POWER
The voltage vs power graph shows that the ratio between the output power and
input power is increasing non-linear as the voltage of the pulses increases.
Therefore, the voltage itself must also have the effect of increasing the number
of dissociations per unit of time, or of increasing the difference in output
over input power. Note that both input and output taken individually seem nearly
linear except at the lower voltages (below 2 volts).
for enlarged view
the curve of the Power OUTPUT Vs the Power INPUT, the green
curve is for 100% efficiency.
In the new tests on June 23rd, 2005, Naudin made some changes to the apparatus.
He replaced the power supply by a high-power battery connected through a
high-power MosFet Switcher. The Switcher is driven by a 10 MHz pulse generator.
The efficiency of the system went from a maximum of 243% up to 1153% while the
duty of the squared pulse decreased (up to 5%). This refers to the
time interval each DC pulse is acting on the hydrogen molecule. By using the
battery and the special MosFet Switcher, the length of time for the pulse was
shortened by up to 5%. In other words, by using a more precise pulse, Mr. Naudin
was able to achieve much better results than with the previous pulse produced by
a power supply. Apparently, the features of the new pulse allowed the vacuum
energy pump to work more efficiently.
for enlarged view
from Jean-Louis Naudin:
These tests demonstrate clearly
that the efficiency of the MAHG increases (up
while the duty cycle of the squared pulse decreases (up to 5%).
We expect that Mr. Naudin will present a graph of this new pulse when
others have been able to repeat these results, and the effect fully
characterized, explained, and optimized; the big question will be how practical
this technology will be as a free energy tapping modality.
Solar energy is free energy, but the hardware required to convert photons to
electricity is anything but free. Likewise, even though this MAHG
technology apparently taps free energy, does not automatically mean that it will
solve the world's energy problems. The machine cost and efficiency will be
a primary consideration in the practicality of the technology for commercial
application. Preliminary results and extrapolations appear
promising for the MAHG. Further studies and development will answer that
question more definitively.
In an email granting permission to use the images that appear in this article,
Naudin said, "I hope that my modest contribution of my researches about
this fascinating device will soon give us a clean energy source for the future
and will contribute to saving our planet".
Beene gives his opinion that "of all the many projects going-on in
alternative energy right now, this is by far the closest thing to being a
demonstrable (and shocking) success within the next 6 month time-frame. By
success, I mean self-powered overunity leading to an immediate commercial
prototype - or at least something which cannot be denied by the mainstream of
physics as being overunity (probably ZPE) and instantly marketable."
In the throws of this recent success, Naudin's assessment of this technology is
that it rises to the status of the "Holy Grail" of energy.
If you are interested in pursuing this concept, there is a project list that
pursues various iterations of the atomic hydrogen generator concept such as JL
Naudin's MAHG above. The group is designed for those wishing to replicate,
improve, and develop theories for this fascinating concept. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aH-gen
(See Feedback, below, for additional pertinent
# # #
- Thanks to Jean-Louis Naudin for his cooperation in providing input and
image permissions for this story, as well as for the great work he is doing
in research and development.
- Special thanks to Adrian Akau and Terry Holmes who brought this
development to our attention; and to Adrian for his assistance in composing
Haliburton provided editorial assistance.
- Extensive email correspondence with JL Naudin, who reviewed a near to
final draft of the above story and said, "Thanks for your very well
documented paper about the MAHG and for your contribution to this
- Email correspondence with Alexandar Frolov.
- Email correspondence with Jones Beene.
- MAHG Project home page
- Data Reports
- 2-hour test run with 243% efficiency (June 2, 2005)
- Towards high efficiency in excess of 1000%. "The purpose
of these tests is to improve the MAHG efficiency so as to overcome the
losses due to the poor efficiency of the Carnot cycle at the MAHG
output." (June 20, 2005)
- High efficiency confirmed with a new tests bench. "During the RUN
#74 all the datas [sic] have been recorded during 20 minutes, the
average power output measured was 90.56 watts with only 13,22 watts at
the input. The delta T was 2.8°C with a cooling water flow of 0.54
L/min. The average efficiency measured was 682 % during this
test." (June 23, 2005)
- MAHG v2.0: one hour test run at 526%. "This 1 hour test
confirms again all the previous measurements done with the MAHG."
"During the RUN 75, the average power output measured was 66,5 Watt
with only 12,5 Watt at the input. The delta T was 4,6°C with an average
cooling water flow of 0.24 L/min. The average efficiency measured was
526 % during this test." (June 24, 2005)
- Full tests of the MAHG by JL Naudin (May 23, 2005)
- Genesis phase of the project; 1st preliminary experimental
tests results. (March 1, 2004)
- Article: http://jlnlabs.imars.com/mahg/article.htm
- Irving Langmuir and Atomic Hydrogen by Nicholas Moller
- Forum: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/jlnlabs/
- Naudin's discussion list covers a wide array of free energy topics.
The forum is moderated and selective in what it allows.
- The Atomic
Hydrogen Reaction - Tom Bearden introduces William Lyne's book Occult
Ether Physics. (July 6, 2003)
Excedence - Patent and Mathematical Proofs by Kenneth Rauen, Science
Advisor for PES Network Inc., show that super-efficient thermodynamic
exchange is possible. (Pure Energy Systems; June 28, 2004)
Roles of Frolov & Moller Specified
From: "Faraday Lab" <email@example.com>
Sent: Monday, June 27, 2005 12:55 AM
Subject: RE: role of Frolov
Moller had idea to test hydrogen recombination efficiency. Design of the vacuum
tube was made by me with local factory. In my research lab here in St.Petersburg
it was tested in different modes and then it was discovered that recombination
is only particular case. Now we have new results without hydrogen recombination.
Future testing will are planned in Australia.
Alexander V. Frolov
* * * *
From: "Alexander V. Frolov"
Sent: Monday, June 27, 2005 1:16 AM
Subject: MAHG energy breakthrough;
I am happy to see independent positive confirmation of my invention. Moller knew
nothing about this way but he proposed to work on this topic and he paid 50% of
cost. Also we have contract about 50-50 on the topic (including authorship). So,
please remember who is real author...
Alexander V. Frolov
* * * *
From: "Jones Beene" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Sent: Sunday, June 26, 2005 5:05 PM
Subject: Re: integrated: More MAHG & BLP
"The key is found in the frequency characteristics by
which the positive anode and negative cathode are
pulsed, to effect a low-energy separation of the H2
into H. The anode/cathode voltage gradients range
between 200 and 300 Volts. "
OK, that was the older work - the newer work uses far less voltage and lower
frequency. From 5.5 volts down to only one-half volt is now the standard for the
higher efficiency. This would not be adequate to
create mono-atomic hydrogen in normal physics.
"AC-driven pulses do not work. The pulses have to be
DC, in the range of 10 megahertz."
Now, the newer work uses much lower frequency - only 50+ hz combined with a very
low duty factor (TDC) of ~10% yet still managing to draw over 20 amps. Most
observers would think of that as nearly impossible.
* * * *
Sent: Sunday, June 26, 2005 7:21 PM
Subject: Thermo-acoustics and MAHG
Heat-to-electricity conversion ... ah... a recurrent problem in many
IF the present MAHG 2.0 results hold or improve, currently a COP greater than 5
is seen, then the quandary presents itself - how do you convert that excess
heat, and the very small delta-T back into electricity, at a Carnot efficiency
of greater than 20% - in order to self-power. This level of performance is
adequate to self-power if other technology can be "borrowed".
Fortunately, the most obvious conversion modality for a situation where the
energy has an acoustic frequency component involves **thermoacoustics.** It is
not really all that complicated and some top-notch labs are currently showing
The term "Stirling-Acoustic" is often used, although there is no
reason to confuse this situation with the original "Stirling" concept-
as now the conversion modality is becoming more like a linear transducer (i.e.
loudspeaker) and less like a regular stirling, which probably will not work
efficiently with that low Delta-T.
Whereas acoustic implementation will probably actually benefit from the low (330
K ) tube temperature as the P/V effects are capable of inclusion with an
alteration of the MAHG tube. LANL claims 30% Carnot efficiency now. The original
expired LANL patent can be seen here: http://www.delphion.com/details?pn=US04599551__
here is the main link for the project: http://www.lanl.gov/mst/engine/
and here is the important but not-expired patent at: http://www.delphion.com/details?pn=US05892293__
which is the Macrosonix patent, and clearly not all that distinguishable from
the older and expired LANL patent. Its validity has is therefore suspect, in
light of prior art, but has not been challenged AFAIK.
Anyway, thermo-acoustics is definitely the easiest path to self-power for the
First however, one needs to fashion the MAHG tube itself into the form of a
**bellows,** such as the Slyphon "Seamless Metal Bellows" but formed
with an "active" metal sputter coating on the inside of a
"springy tube... for instance a beryllium copper bellows would be perfect,
which is also becomes the anode. We dispense with the water circuit and air cool
the tube to 300K.
Tungsten is now used in MAHG. A valid question remains - is the effect limited
to W ? As I posted earlier, the results of fuel-cell experiments seem to
indicate that a Pd-Ru alloy approx 50/50 is superior - either sputtered or
electroplated, but FCs are not the same beast as the Langmuir torch - despite
some hidden similarities - and that level of "refinement" is all part
of the tedious process of prototype engineering, following a proof-of-concept
which can use tungsten.
Additionally - with thermoacoustics, it might easily be possible to capitalize
on the Alfven-effect - which is a thermoacoustic resonance effect at low
frequency... not that we need another synergy, but why turn it down?
It is all very exciting and bursting with the promise of the real "holy
grail" of advancing technology -- free-energy through ZPE coherence.
* * * *
From: "Terry Holmes" <email@example.com>
Sent: Sunday, June 26, 2005 7:22 PM
Subject: Re: integrated: More MAHG & BLP
As far as Stirling engines go, James Senft's 1996 book "Low Temperature
Differential Stirling Engines", gradients as low as 1/2 degree C can drive
a Stirling Engine. However, he says that whether they can be put to
practical use is an "open question". I don't know if any commercial
progress has been made over the past 9 years.
The Bearden site below discusses "bare proton" photon emission as
related to Langmuir's experimental results. Perhaps his theory is related to
* * * *
Energy Out / Energy In
Sent: Wednesday, June 01, 2005 8:19 AM
Subject: FW: Moller's Novel H2 generation sys. ?
response to Naudins test of the Moller H2 Generator see below.
is from the worlds leading expert on H2 Generation, founder of Millenium
others were similar in form.
Steven Amendola <email
Sent: Tuesday, May 31, 2005
Subject: Re: Novel H2 generation
of all he is totally incorrect stating that efficiency is Power Out /
is Energy Out / Energy In.
his definition even a capacitor can achieve 1000's% efficiency since they can
discharge much faster than they charge. (Even a released spring can do that)
is all he is seeing. He makes atomic H at some rate and it decomposes at a
faster rate because its unstable.
be storing energy in the form of atomic hydrogen. (Just H instead of H2) While
this could store a fair amount of energy per unit weight, it is known that
atomic hydrogen is very unstable and readily recombines in a couple of
seconds. He has done nothing to mitigate this instability, thus I can't see it
as a storage method either.
Page composed by Sterling
D. Allan June 25, 2005
Last updated May 06, 2010