Ammonia Cracker for Fuel Cell Hydrogen Supply
ZAP and Apollo Energy's proprietary method
produces H-on-demand from onboard ammonia. Touted as inexpensive, zero-emission
power source to jump-start the hydrogen economy.
Adapted by Pure Energy Systems News
ZAP's "Smart Car"
Will be run on H derived from Ammonia
POMPANO BEACH, FLORIDA, USA -- ZAP (OTCBB:ZAPZ), along with technology
partner Apollo Energy Systems of Pompano Beach, Florida, have announced the
successful demonstration of a patented "Ammonia Cracker" technology
for use as a method to power zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell cars.
They believe that their technology will pioneer the next generation of advanced
transportation and energy technologies, offering a range cost savings and other
advantages over other hydrogen fuel cell solutions.
Apollo's Alkaline Fuel Cells, derived from designs used in most major space
explorations programs, are Hydrogen Fuel Cells that derive their energy from
ammonia. Apollo's patented Ammonia Cracker breaks the ammonia down into hydrogen
to power the fuel cell, said Robert Aronsson, President of Apollo Energy
Aronsson says, "The easiest and least expensive way to move Hydrogen from
Point A to Point B is to use ammonia. Seventy-five percent of ammonia (NH3) is
hydrogen. Ammonia can be added inexpensively as a component of today's gas
stations, without costly hydrogen extractors, allowing the refueling of fuel
cell cars today, years ahead of other hydrogen solutions."
In 2004, ZAP signed an exclusive licensing and distribution contract with Apollo
Energy Systems for its patented Alkaline Fuel Cell, Ammonia Cracker and
Lead-Cobalt battery technologies as a partnership towards the development of ZAP
CARSฎ powered by hydrogen fuel cells. ZAP CEO Steve Schneider said ZAP will
work with Apollo on the creation of a prototype fuel cell vehicle using a
Department-of-Transportation approved Smart Car. Schneider and Aronsson said the
Smart Car powered by a 60 kW Apollo Fuel Cell, equipped with an 8.7 gallon
Ammonia fuel tank will have a cruising range of up to 200 miles per refueling
with zero emissions.
"This technology has the potential to enable ZAP to offer a true
zero-emission vehicle that can meet the transportation needs of U.S.
drivers," said Mr. Schneider.
Apollo conducted a successful demonstration of its Ammonia Cracker technology at
its facilities in Pompano Beach, Florida. Inventor Dr. Gottfried Faleschini was
on hand to oversee the demonstration.
Schneider and Aronsson outlined their vision to demonstrate the new Apollo Fuel
Cell and Lead Cobalt Battery in ZAP automobiles, in what they say would be the
world's first coast-to-coast "Hydrogen Expressway" drive from Florida
to California. Hydrogen required for the fuel cells will come from liquid
ammonia (NH3), which would be stored in large tanks at gas stations along the
way. The electric vehicles would "fill up" with liquid ammonia, which
then feeds into Apollo's patented Ammonia Cracker on board the vehicle, similar
to catalytic converters in modern automobiles. The Ammonia Cracker would extract
hydrogen from the ammonia for the fuel cells.
Mr. Aronsson said ammonia-based fuel cell present important benefits over
existing hydrogen fuel cell designs. "Ammonia is the second most common
chemical produced in the world and can be made from natural gas or renewable
energy," he said. "It is shipped by truck, rail, pipeline, ship and
barge and is commonly used as fertilizer or in household refrigerators and can
be competitive in price to gasoline. Ammonia fueling stations could be set up at
very little cost, as the infrastructure already exists throughout the country.
By making weekly deliveries of ammonia to gas stations in the 100 largest
metropolitan areas of the U.S., ammonia distributors could reach 70 percent of
Others have proposed equipping gas stations with mini-factories for producing
hydrogen by electrolysis at a cost of $1 million per gas station. But this
design by ZAP and Apollo could accomplish the same thing inexpensively. The new
fueling system would make it possible for thousands of ZAP hydrogen fuel cell
cars and other hydrogen vehicle brands to operate throughout the country,
silently, and with zero emissions.
About Apollo Energy Systems
Apollo Energy Systems, Inc. is in the business of developing, producing,
marketing and licensing new energy products and energy systems utilizing
hydrogen fuel cells, batteries, renewable resources and space sciences. Apollo
has developed, produced, and field-tested Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lead Cobalt
Rechargeable Batteries for which a number of patents have been issued with
additional patents pending. The Company has also developed Ammonia Crackers for
the on-board, on-demand production of hydrogen for the fuel cells. A patent is
pending on these devices as well. For more information, visit http://www.apolloenergysystems.com.
ZAP, Zero Air Pollutionฎ, has been a leader in advanced transportation
technologies and energy products since 1994. ZAP owns the technology developed
by Smart-Automobile LLC to Americanize the popular European-made Smart Car for
the U.S. marketplace. ZAP Americanizes the Smart Car to meet U.S. federal and
state safety and emissions standards. ZAP is not affiliated with, or authorized
by, smart gmbh, the manufacturer of SMART automobiles, or the SmartUSA division
of Mercedes-Benz LLC, the exclusive authorized U.S. importer and distributor of
those vehicles. The Smart Car is manufactured by the global automotive company
DaimlerChrysler. ZAP purchases its vehicles from non-affiliated direct importer
Smart-Automobile LLC. For more information, visit http://www.zapworld.com.
For investor-specific information, visit http://www.trilogy-capital.com/tcp/zap.
To read or download the Company's Investor Fact Sheet visit http://www.trilogy-capital.com/tcp/zap/factsheet.html.
# # #
Press Release - "ZAP and Apollo Energy Demonstrate Proprietary
'Ammonia Cracker' Technology to Power Hydrogen Fuel Cells; Patented
Technology Offers Inexpensive, Zero-Emission Power Source with Potential to
Accelerate Growth of Emerging Hydrogen Economy" (BusinessWire.com;
May 23, 2005)
What happens to the "N"?
What happens to the nitrogen which constitutes the remainder of the ammonia?
Twenty-five percent by volume is a substantial amount of this element which must
be stored and recovered from the converter. It is expected that fillup stations
will be able to remove and re-sell this common fertilizer for various uses such
NB: a Question arises: Is the nitrogen saved as a solid or
released as a gas? In the latter case, what would happen to the breatheability
of the atmosphere if the percentage of nitrogen begins to rise? Would people
start to get the bends -- in a worst-case scenario?
Haliburton, May 24, 2005
* * * *
Where does Ammonia come from?
Another question has occurred to me that at first glance may seem far out,
but on the other hand if I thought of it, this will occur to others too.
Ammonia is a toxin eliminated by the liver and converted to urea which when
fresh is a good as fertilizer. However, the bacteria convert urea back to
ammonia -- accounting for the smell of the waste from hog factory farms.
On hearing about ammonia fuel tanks for hydrogen-powered cars, I'm sure that
farmers may well put two and two together and start to figure that they have a
handy and potentially profitable fuel source at hand in the effluent from these
intensive animal production (it's hard to think of these buildings as
Other chemical components of the liquid waste would have to be separated, but if
a way could be found to accomplish this, liquid waste converted by bacteria
could become a fuel source, at least in emergencies. The biosolids could be
precipitated out, for example. It's not "black gold", but any way in
which farming could be made more economically viable could be welcome. I do
recall reading about farmers burning chicken manure as an energy source, so
there's a precedent for this already.
The question of what happens to the nitrogen component of the ammonia during
separation is still without answer. If it's pure nitrogen it could be released
as a gas, or it could be attached to the catalytic agent and therefore require
further waste treatment.
Still wondering ... It would be interesting to hear from someone who is
knowledgeable about chemistry discuss this hydrogen-from-ammonia and whether
there may be any unforeseen consequences from implementing it on a large scale.
Haliburton, May 25, 2005
Page posted by Sterling
D. Allan May 23, 2005
Last updated December 24, 2014